Representation of Non-ASCII Text in Internet Message Headers (RFC1342)
Original Publication Date: 1992-Jun-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2000-Sep-12
Internet Society Requests For Comment (RFCs)
This memo describes an extension to the message format defined in  (known to the IETF Mail Extensions Working Group as "RFC 1341"), to allow the representation of character sets other than ASCII in RFC 822 message headers. The extensions described were designed to be highly compatible with existing Internet mail handling software, and to be easily implemented in mail readers that support RFC 1341.
Network Working Group K. Moore
Request for Comments: 1342 University of Tennessee
Representation of Non-ASCII Text in Internet Message Headers
Status of this Memo
This RFC specifies an IAB standards track protocol for the Internet
community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
Please refer to the current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol
Standards" for the standardization state and status of this protocol.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This memo describes an extension to the message format defined in 
(known to the IETF Mail Extensions Working Group as "RFC 1341"), to
allow the representation of character sets other than ASCII in RFC
822 message headers. The extensions described were designed to be
highly compatible with existing Internet mail handling software, and
to be easily implemented in mail readers that support RFC 1341.
RFC 1341 describes a mechanism for denoting textual body parts which
are coded in various character sets, as well as methods for encoding
such body parts as sequences of printable ASCII characters. This
memo describes similar techniques to allow the encoding of non-ASCII
text in various portions of a RFC 822  message header, in a manner
which is unlikely to confuse existing message handling software.
Like the encoding techniques described in RFC 1341, the techniques
outlined here were designed to allow the use of non-ASCII characters
in message headers in a way which is unlikely to be disturbed by the
quirks of existing Internet mail handling programs. In particular,
some mail relaying programs are known to (a) delete some message
header fields while retaining others, (b) rearrange the order of
addresses in To or Cc fields, (c) rearrange the (vertical) order of
header fields, and/or (d) "wrap" message headers at different places
than those in the original message. In addition, some mail reading
programs are known to have difficulty correctly parsing message
headers which, while legal according to RFC 822, make use of
backslash-quoting to "hide" special characters such as "<", ",", or
or which exploit other infrequently-used features of that
While it is unfortunate that these programs do not correctly
interpret RFC 822 headers, to "break" these programs would cause
severe operational problems for the Internet mail system. The
extensions described in this memo therefore do not rely on little-
used features of RFC 822. Instead, certain sequences of "ordinary"
printable ASCII characters (which are assumed to be unlikely to
otherwise appear in message headers) are reserved for use as encoded
data. The characters used in these encodings are restricted to those
which do not have special meanings in the context in which the