Browse Prior Art Database

TONER COMPOSITIONS

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000026824D
Original Publication Date: 1993-Oct-31
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2004-Apr-06
Document File: 4 page(s) / 286K

Publishing Venue

Xerox Disclosure Journal

Abstract

A novel toner composition is disclosed that comprises resin particles and pigment particles wherein the toner is surface treated with a halogen. Figure 1 represents an embodiment of the disclosed toner composition. The encapsulated toner particle 10 is comprised of low melt polymer resin 11, an encapsulating higher melting shell 12, and pigment or other internal additives 13, and optionally surface or external additives. The higher melting shell 12 can be comprised of halogenated polymer resin 11, colorant, or pigment, and additives, such as a charge control component in embodiments of the disclosed toner composition.

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XEROX DISCLOSURE JOURNAL

TONER COMPOSITIONS

Timothy J. Fuller David H. Pan William M. Prest, Jr. Garland Jen Michael K. Georges

Proposed Classification
U.S. C1.430/109 Int. C1. G03g 09/08

13

FIG. 1

XEROX DISCLOSURE JOURNAL - Vol.18,No. 5 September/October 1993 569

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TONER COMPOSITIONS(Cont'd)

A novel toner composition is disclosed that comprises resin particles and pigment particles wherein the toner is surface treated with a halogen. Figure 1 represents an embodiment of the disclosed toner composition. The encapsulated toner particle 10 is comprised of low melt polymer resin 11, an encapsulating higher melting shell 12, and pigment or other internal additives 13, and optionally surface or external additives. The higher melting shell 12 can be comprised of halogenated polymer resin 11, colorant, or pigment, and additives, such as a charge control component in embodiments of the disclosed toner composition.

More specifically, in one embodiment there are provided toner compositions comprised of pigment particles and resin polymer particles, and wherein the toner is subjected to halogenation resulting in the formation of a toner shell. The aforementioned toner resin particles are preferably comprised of ultra low melt resin polymers, which in embodiments possess a glass transition temperature of from about 20 to about 75"C, and preferably from about 33 to about 60°C as determined by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and wherein the toner melts at from about 220 to about 300°F and preferably 250°F. The halogenated, especially chlorinated, encapsulating polymer surfaces can possess glass transition temperature values between about 55 and llO"C, and preferably from about 100 to about 110°C in embodiments. The high glass transition temperature surfaces, or shell impart, for example, robustness to the toners. The toner core comprised of resin and pigment has, for example, a glass transition temperature of from about 20 to about llO"C, preferably from about 25 to about 60, and more preferably about 40°C in embodiments, thus the toner is considered a low, or ultra low melting composition. The glass transition temperatures were determined by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry).

The toners are comprised of low melting resin particles and pigment particles, which have usually been prepared in an extrusion or melt mixing apparatus, followed by attrition and classification to provide toners with an average diameter of from about 7 to about 25 microns, and preferably about 10 microns. Subsequently, the toner obtained is subjected to halogenation, especially chlorination, by, for example, admixing the toner with an aqueous solution of the halogen. Halogens include chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine, with chlorine being preferred. With flurine, an aqueous solution is not utilized, rather there is selected a suitable fluorinating agent which is used flourine with an in...