EFFICIENT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FAVORABLE COMPOSITIONS EMPLOYING GLYCIDYL ETHER-CAPPED ACETYLENIC DIOL ETHOXYLATE SURFACTANTS
Publication Date: 2004-Nov-22
The IP.com Prior Art Database
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to the use of efficient and environmentally favorable compositions based on glycidyl ether-capped acetylenic diol ethoxylate surfactants, their manufacture, and their use to reduce surface tension in water-based systems.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The ability to reduce the surface tension of water is of great importance in the application of waterborne formulations because decreased surface tension translates to enhanced substrate wetting. Examples of such waterborne compositions include coatings, inks, adhesives, fountain solutions, cleaning compositions and agricultural formulations. Surface tension reduction in water-based systems is generally achieved through the addition of surfactants, resulting in enhanced surface coverage, fewer defects, and more uniform distribution. Equilibrium surface tension performance is important when the system is at rest. Dynamic surface tension provides a measure of the ability of a surfactant to reduce surface tension and provide wetting under high-speed application conditions, i.e., high surface creation rates.
Surfactants based on acetylenic glycols such as 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (1) and its ethoxylates (2) are known for their good balance of equilibrium and dynamic surface-tension-reducing capabilities with few of the negative features of traditional nonionic and anionic surfactants.
Relative to other families of nonionic surfactants, however, these materials have high critical micelle concentrations, making them less efficient in emulsification and solubilization processes. Acetylenic diols and their ethoxylates are relatively inefficient with respect to surface tension reduction, requiring higher use levels to obtain an equivalent reduction in surface tension. They also have limitations with respect to their effectiveness, that is their ability to reduce the surface tension of a formulation to a low value, regardless of the amount of surfactant used. Finally, acetylenic diol ethoxylates are relatively low foam surfactants, and in many applications, for example cleaning formulations, the formation of foam is desirable from both a performance and aesthetic standpoint.
The importance of a surfactant achieving efficient emulsification and solubilization, and low surface tensions at low use levels, and the ability to control the foam characteristics of a surfactant are of considerable industrial importance and are well appreciated in the art. Extensive discussions of the fundamental properties and practical application of surfactants can be found in Rosen, Surfactants and Interf...