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Vacuum Deposition of Material Films On Subtsrates Utilizing Controlled Plasma

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000086589D
Original Publication Date: 1976-Oct-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Mar-03
Document File: 3 page(s) / 79K

Publishing Venue

IBM

Related People

Karr, PC: AUTHOR

Abstract

Equipment and processes are described for depositing films of various materials, metallic and nonmetallic, upon surfaces within a vacuum by generating a plasma of, or including, the continually supplied material. The plasma is controllably contained, stabilized, conditioned and directed for deposition as and where selected. The apparatus combines principles of plasma generation and magnetohydrodynamics, and materials for high quality film production in vacuum, a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers and pumping systems customarily used in vacuum technology are also included. The process is adaptable to many vacuum-film deposition applications, such as those used in semiconductor and other electronic production.

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Vacuum Deposition of Material Films On Subtsrates Utilizing Controlled Plasma

Equipment and processes are described for depositing films of various materials, metallic and nonmetallic, upon surfaces within a vacuum by generating a plasma of, or including, the continually supplied material. The plasma is controllably contained, stabilized, conditioned and directed for deposition as and where selected. The apparatus combines principles of plasma generation and magnetohydrodynamics, and materials for high quality film production in vacuum, a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers and pumping systems customarily used in vacuum technology are also included. The process is adaptable to many vacuum-film deposition applications, such as those used in semiconductor and other electronic production. Plasma occurs in three broad category situations: 1) some common-use devices, such as neon lights; 2) laboratory plasmas that are used to investigate plasma properties and to develop devices such as thermonuclear reactors; and 3) cosmic plasma. In more recent years, the high heat of gas-plasma generators has been used for material cutting, welding and "flame" spraying.

Interaction of plasmas with electrostatic and electromagnetic fields has been studied extensively in plasma physics laboratories - magnetohydrodynamics or hydromagnetics. Most studies have been directed toward containment and control of extremely high temperature plasmas for possible use in thermonuclear power generation systems. Film deposition in vacuum for semiconductor and high density circuitry is presently being accomplished, but with limitations, particularly in the production area. Sources are uniquely tailored for the material to be deposited, and require frequent replenishing and replacement. The firing up and throttling down is not positive and is time consuming, and contamination is often produced. There is little or no vapor control, except as to rate of evaporation. Evaporant moves in a straight line in all directions possible from the source. The lack of control and positioning of the deposit amplifies system maintenance because of accumulated deposits which require cleaning and parts replacement. The cleaning results in material recovery and/or waste disposal problems. Inefficiencies occur in utilization of materials, time, energy and equipment.

Plasma deposition would change the production system considerably. Since the uniform deposition does not depend on the cosine law, the source-to- substrate distance can be reduced. This in turn reduces the system size and the volume to pump down. High pressures can be tolerated in the shorter distance and have the same mean free path, thus possibly making high vacuum unnecessary. The fast start-up and shut-down, along with small system volume, can allow substrate change without elaborate substrate transport and locking- through operations.

A proposed configuration is illustrated in the drawing. The primary areas are the pla...