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X Ray Diffractometer for Thin Films

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000090570D
Original Publication Date: 1969-May-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Mar-05
Document File: 2 page(s) / 43K

Publishing Venue

IBM

Related People

Berry, BS: AUTHOR [+2]

Abstract

X-ray diffraction is a technique that can be applied to thin-film investigations, such as the determination of grain size, internal stress preferred orientation, crystal structure, and relative amount of new phases generated by precipitation or diffusion. All these areas can be investigated in bulk samples by various forms of available X-ray diffractometers. However, these instruments are not well-suited to the investigation of thin films. This is because the method of scanning involves changing the angle of incidence by rotating the specimen around in the X-ray beam.

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X Ray Diffractometer for Thin Films

X-ray diffraction is a technique that can be applied to thin-film investigations, such as the determination of grain size, internal stress preferred orientation, crystal structure, and relative amount of new phases generated by precipitation or diffusion. All these areas can be investigated in bulk samples by various forms of available X-ray diffractometers. However, these instruments are not well-suited to the investigation of thin films. This is because the method of scanning involves changing the angle of incidence by rotating the specimen around in the X-ray beam. Although bulk specimens can be made either thick enough to give complete absorption of the incident beam in any position or of a cylindrical shape so that rotation does not change the diffracted intensities, neither of these conditions can be satisfied with a specimen whose geometry is that of a thin film. When a thin film is rotated in the incident X-ray beam, a maximum absorption of X-rays occurs near grazing incidence as in drawing A while at normal incidence the absorption is a minimum as in drawing B.

It is advantageous in the case of thin films to maintain the angle of incidence fixed at a low grazing value so as to obtain the highest diffracted intensities. This arrangement can be achieved in the manner described by H. Seeman, Ann. Phys. Lpz., 59, 455, 1919; and H. Bolin, Ann. Phys. Lpz., 61, 421, 1920, by placing the specimen at a point on the circumferenc...