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CLET A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT LEARNS ARITHMETIC FROM AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000128922D
Original Publication Date: 1973-Feb-21
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Sep-20
Document File: 9 page(s) / 38K

Publishing Venue

Software Patent Institute

Related People

Badre, Nagib A.: AUTHOR [+3]

Abstract

CLET is a computer program which achieves the learning of elementary arithmetic from an ordinary fourth-grade textbook. CLET takes all of its input from unmodified sentences appearing in this book. It performs syntactic, semantic, and discourse level analyses of the input material. CLET must then induce the general algorithms from the examples presented to it. It bull up, automatically, an internal program to perform the re, iced operations. CLET then solves elementary arithmetic problems using the program it has constructed. RC 4235 (#18978) February 21, 1973 (Rec'd. 3/19/73) Computer Sciences Copies may be requested from: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center Post Office Box 218 Yorktown Heights, New York 10598

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This is the abbreviated version, containing approximately 13% of the total text.

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THIS DOCUMENT IS AN APPROXIMATE REPRESENTATION OF THE ORIGINAL.

CLET A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT LEARNS ARITHMETIC FROM AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK

Nagib A. Badre February 21, 1973 (Rec'd. 3/19t73)

Rr: 49.qR CLET -- A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT LEARNS ARITHMETIC FROM AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK. by Nagib A. Badre IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights, New York

ABSTRACT:

CLET is a computer program which achieves the learning of elementary arithmetic from an ordinary fourth-grade textbook. CLET takes all of its input from unmodified sentences appearing in this book. It performs syntactic, semantic, and discourse level analyses of the input material. CLET must then induce the general algorithms from the examples presented to it. It bull up, automatically, an internal program to perform the re, iced operations. CLET then solves elementary arithmetic problems using the program it has constructed.

RC 4235 (#18978)

February 21, 1973 (Rec'd. 3/19/73)

Computer Sciences Copies may be requested from: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center Post Office Box 218 Yorktown Heights, New York 10598

1. INTRODUCTION

One elementary form of human learning is by being told explicitly, in ordinary language, about the material to be learned. While humans are capable of much more sophistication, a substantial part of our knowledge could be transmitted through words uttered by teachers or written in books. This is especially the case with the more academic type of knowledge, as opposed to that acquired through pragmatic experience. Since computer programs have been devised to "understand" English, the idea of making a computer "go to school" seemed like a logical next step. This paper describes an attempt to study some of the many problems involved in such a task, even at a very elementary school level. (This research is described in more detail in [ Badre 1972 ] )

CLET (Computer Learning from English Text) is a computer program which reads unmodified excerpts from an ordinary fourth grade arithmetic textbook. These consist of a series of examples explaining a step by step performance of several addition and subtraction operations (see figure 1 at the end of this paper).

IBM Research Page 1 Feb 21, 1973

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CLET A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT LEARNS ARITHMETIC FROM AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK

Initially, the background expected from the system (and from a pupil entering fourth grade) is a knowledge of simple operations using the number line. The textbook material teaches column- wise addition and subtraction. For example,

(1) (2) 1 7 9 2 2 6

  3 4 4

The pupil eventually learns which steps are used, in which conditions they are applicable (e.g., carrying), and in which order they are to be performed. Note below the subtle difference between (2a & 2b) which ire assumed to be known already, [ Equation omitted ]

(1) 1 5

  8 2 3

CLET first performs a linguistic analysis of the text: syntax, sentence and discourse level semantic processing. The various examples can then be merg...