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Computer Advances Pioneered by Cryptologic Organizations

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000129334D
Original Publication Date: 1980-Jan-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Oct-05
Document File: 14 page(s) / 58K

Publishing Venue

Software Patent Institute

Related People

SAMUEL S. SNYDER: AUTHOR [+2]

Abstract

When the modern electronic computer proposals pioneered by wan Eckert, Mauchly, and others in the 1940s were under development, the Army and Navy predecessors of today's National Security Agency were quick to realize that their great power and versatility promised exciting improvements in cryptologic applications. Many of the NSA-supported projects were among industry ";firsts,"; and features in several commercial computers directly followed NSA's lead. A survey of the computer developments made by and for NSA is given here, beginning with ATLAS, deloused in December 1950 by Engineering Research Associates, and culminating in the massing LIGHTNING research program.

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THIS DOCUMENT IS AN APPROXIMATE REPRESENTATION OF THE ORIGINAL.

Copyright ©; 1980 by the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Inc., Volume 2, Number 1, January 1980. Used with permission.

Computer Advances Pioneered by Cryptologic Organizations

SAMUEL S. SNYDER

(Image Omitted: © 1979 by the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Inc. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the AFIPS copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Inc. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires specific permission. Author's address: 10726 St. Margarets Way, Silver Spring, MD 20902.)

When the modern electronic computer proposals pioneered by wan Eckert, Mauchly, and others in the 1940s were under development, the Army and Navy predecessors of today's National Security Agency were quick to realize that their great power and versatility promised exciting improvements in cryptologic applications. Many of the NSA-supported projects were among industry "firsts," and features in several commercial computers directly followed NSA's lead. A survey of the computer developments made by and for NSA is given here, beginning with ATLAS, deloused in December 1950 by Engineering Research Associates, and culminating in the massing LIGHTNING research program.

Keywords and phrases: GOLDBERG, DEMON, ATLAS I, ATLAS 11, ABEL, ABNER, BOGART, SOLO, HARVEST, LIGHTNING, Engineering Research Associates, magnetic drum, cryptologic, Technitrol Corp., U.S. National Bureau of Standards, IAS computer, WHIRLWIND, interlace, ERA 1101, UNIVAC Scientific 1103, Raytheon Corp., EDVAC, UNIVAC, RAYDAC, TRANSAC S- 1000, TRANSAC stood, Philco S-2000, Navy CXPQ computer, IBM, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 704, IBM 705, TRACTOR, Atomic Energy Commission, FARMER, STRETCH, Sperry-Rand Univac, RCA, Philco Corp., General Electric Co., Massachusettss Institute of Technology, University of Kansas, Ohio State University CR category: 1.2

Introduction

In simple terms, the mission of the National Security Agency (NSA)11 has always been to develop and to protect information. The technical processes required to perform this mission, although quite intricate at times, were carried out entirely without machine assistance in the early 1930s. As the complexity of the technical processes increased, agency specialists sought the help of high-speed machines. World War II gave increased impetus to the use of machines as NSA's predecessors enlisted the help of U.S. private industry in developing the machinery needed. Most of the technical processes requiring help of high-speed machines involved repetitive manipulation of masses of digital and alphabetic data, including a variety of statistical and transformational operations.

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