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Institutionalization of FORTRAN: Early FORTRAN at Livermore

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000129434D
Original Publication Date: 1984-Jan-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Oct-06
Document File: 2 page(s) / 15K

Publishing Venue

Software Patent Institute

Related People

ROBERT A. HUGHES: AUTHOR [+2]

Abstract

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), located about 40 miles due east of San Francisco, is a facility for nuclear research and weapons design. Being only slightly younger than the modern digital computer, LLNL's history is closely tied to that of the computer industry is that it is: 1. A leader in the application of computers (and FORTRAN) to the solution of large-scale scientific problems and to major systems software implementations.

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THIS DOCUMENT IS AN APPROXIMATE REPRESENTATION OF THE ORIGINAL.

Copyright ©; 1984 by the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Inc. Used with permission.

Institutionalization of FORTRAN: Early FORTRAN at Livermore

ROBERT A. HUGHES

(Image Omitted: Author's Address: R. A. Hughes, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94450.)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), located about 40 miles due east of San Francisco, is a facility for nuclear research and weapons design. Being only slightly younger than the modern digital computer, LLNL's history is closely tied to that of the computer industry is that it is: 1. A leader in the application of computers (and FORTRAN) to the solution of large- scale scientific problems and to major systems software implementations.

2. Staffed by experts in both software and hardware design.

3. One of the largest concentrations of computing power in the world, housing both the Octopus Computer Network and the Magnetic Fusion and Energy Computer Center. The latter is a national network.

LLNL has a user community of 8000 employees, of whom 4000 are scientists or engineers. It has 2000 time-sharing terminals, and works on scientific applications in mathematical physics and biomedical research. Its system software consists of operating systems, language processors, and computer graphics.

Computing at LLNL began with the first commercially available machines, the UNIVAC! in 1952 and its successors, the IBM CPC, an IBM 701 in 1954, and two IBM 650s. There were some early compiler efforts. K1 and K2 were experimental algebraic compilers for the IBM 701 based on flowchart algorithms. K3 was an IBM 704 compiler designed to maintain the integrity of conventional mathematical notation. It required three cards per statement, the first and third being used for exponents and subscripts. It was named K3 for "Kent Ellsworth and the world's third compiler." K3 had a successful first run. It then became the world's second Spruce Goose in the wake of FORTRAN'S growing popularity.

Interest in FORTRAN began in 1955, when IBM announced plans for an automatic codin...