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Reliability of CMOS Integrated Circuits Disclosure Number: IPCOM000131244D
Original Publication Date: 1978-Oct-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Nov-10
Document File: 21 page(s) / 66K

Publishing Venue

Software Patent Institute

Related People

G. L. Schnable: AUTHOR [+5]


RCA Solid State Division

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This record contains textual material that is copyright ©; 1978 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. Contact the IEEE Computer Society (714-821-8380) for copies of the complete work that was the source of this textual material and for all use beyond that as a record from the SPI Database.

Reliability of CMOS Integrated Circuits

G. L. Schnable

RCA Laboratories

L.J. Gallace

RCA Solid State Division

H.L. Pujol

RCA Solid State Division

CMOS ICs are being produced using a variety of processes, and considerable data is now available on their reliability s and failure mechanisms.

There are basic differences between MOS and bipolar digital integrated circuits, and between CMOS and other digital MOS technologies. Some of those differences have an impact on the reliability of the various types of digital integrated circuits. Accelerated-life tests and field use, along with other available data on CMOS reliability, indicate that CMOS devices, properly made, are equal in reliability to bipolar digital circuits of equal complexity. In this article, we look at CMOS packaging, circuit complexity, and electrostatic gate protection and compare CMOS to other types of digital IC technology.

CMOS IC Technology

The basic building block for CMOS integrated circuitry- is shown in Figure 1. In contrast to other types of MOS integrated circuits, the CMOS circuits contain no load resistors; this results in very low quiescent dissipation. The voltage transfer characteristics of a basic CMOS inverter are shown in Figure 2, and typical curves of dynamic dissipation versus frequency in Figure 3.

CMOS ICs were originally produced in volume in 1968. The technology has evolved from that used for the original RCA CD4000 series) devices /6-15 volts) to the CD4000A series /3-15 volt) devices2 in 1971, and to the 4000B series /3-20 volt) devices 3'5 in 1974. The introduction, in 1970, of plasticencapsulated devices5 was instrumental in achieving even wider acceptance of the popular 4000 series.

CMOS ICs are being produced by a number of manufacturers using a variety of different processes.2~3~5-'9 Ion implantation is being used to form p-wells, 3920 to adjust thresholds,6 and to avoid field inversion. Metallization materials have included aluminum, polycrystalline silicon, and titaniumpalladium-gold or titanium-platinum-gold.5~2t Tech

niques for attaching the die to the substrate have included gold-silicon eutectic bonding and epoxy attachment.5 Although most CMOS ICs being manufactured today are bulk silicon types, devices fabricated on thin-film silicon-on- sapphire substrates are being produced.3~7'8~',~9

At present, 4000A series CMOS ICs are commercially available from more than 10 suppliers, and standardized 4000B series da-vices22 are or will be available from at least nine. Devices qualified to MIL M-38510, Class A are also c...