Dismiss
InnovationQ will be updated on Sunday, Oct. 22, from 10am ET - noon. You may experience brief service interruptions during that time.
Browse Prior Art Database

Robots, Models, and Automation

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000131414D
Original Publication Date: 1979-Jul-01
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2005-Nov-11
Document File: 11 page(s) / 41K

Publishing Venue

Software Patent Institute

Related People

Richard Paul: AUTHOR [+3]

Abstract

[Figure containing following caption omitted: Low-cost, mass-produced industrial robots could free human workers from the tedium of the assembly line. Such robots may be possible within the next decade.] A worker and an industrial robot performing the same task on an assembly line both appear to understand what they are doing. The worker has a mental model of the task to be performed; he checks every repetition of the task against this model to verify the correct performance of the work. The robot, on the other hand, is simply stepping through a stored sequence of positions. The surface appearance of understanding is a mere fiction, similar to the animation effects created in movies. If the industrial robot can be given a form of task model which will enable it to understand in some primitive way what it is doing, it will then have some legitimate claim to the name ";robot"; and could have a major impact on future manufacturing. The present day industrial robot has its origins in both teleoperators and numerically controlled machine tools. The teleoperator, or telecher~c, is a device to allow an operator to perform a manual task from a distance. The numerically controlled machine tool shapes metal automatically, based on digitally encoded cutting data. The teleoperator was developed during the second world war to handle radioactive materials.' An operator was separated from a radioactive task by a concrete wall with one or more viewing ports through which the task could be observed. The teleoperator was to substitute for the operator's hands; it consisted of a pair of tongs on the inside (the slave), and two handles on the outside (the master). Both tongs and handles were connected by six-link mechanisms to provide for arbitrary positioning and orientation of the master and slave. A mechanical linkage was provided to control the slave to replicate the motion of the master.

This text was extracted from a PDF file.
This is the abbreviated version, containing approximately 9% of the total text.

Page 1 of 11

THIS DOCUMENT IS AN APPROXIMATE REPRESENTATION OF THE ORIGINAL.

This record contains textual material that is copyright ©; 1979 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. Contact the IEEE Computer Society http://www.computer.org/ (714-821-8380) for copies of the complete work that was the source of this textual material and for all use beyond that as a record from the SPI Database.

Robots, Models, and Automation

Richard Paul

Purdue University

(Image Omitted: Low-cost, mass-produced industrial robots could free human workers from the tedium of the assembly line. Such robots may be possible within the next decade.)

A worker and an industrial robot performing the same task on an assembly line both appear to understand what they are doing. The worker has a mental model of the task to be performed; he checks every repetition of the task against this model to verify the correct performance of the work. The robot, on the other hand, is simply stepping through a stored sequence of positions. The surface appearance of understanding is a mere fiction, similar to the animation effects created in movies. If the industrial robot can be given a form of task model which will enable it to understand in some primitive way what it is doing, it will then have some legitimate claim to the name "robot" and could have a major impact on future manufacturing.

The present day industrial robot has its origins in both teleoperators and numerically controlled machine tools. The teleoperator, or telecher~c, is a device to allow an operator to perform a manual task from a distance. The numerically controlled machine tool shapes metal automatically, based on digitally encoded cutting data.

The teleoperator was developed during the second world war to handle radioactive materials.' An operator was separated from a radioactive task by a concrete wall with one or more viewing ports through which the task could be observed. The teleoperator was to substitute for the operator's hands; it consisted of a pair of tongs on the inside (the slave), and two handles on the outside (the master). Both tongs and handles were connected by six-link mechanisms to provide for arbitrary positioning and orientation of the master and slave. A mechanical linkage was provided to control the slave to replicate the motion of the master.

In 1947, the first servoed electric-powered telexed orator was developed. The slave was servo- controlled to follow the position of the master. No force information was available to the operator, and tasks requiring parts to be brought into contact were difficult to perform. To quote Goertz, "The general-purpose manipulator may be used for moving objects, moving levers or knobs, assembling parts, and manipulating wrenches. In all these operations the manipulator must come into physical contact with the object before the desired force and movement can be made on it. A collision occurs when the manipulator makes thi...