Import Terminals - Early Development Stages
Publication Date: 2009-May-05
The IP.com Prior Art Database
IMPORT TERMI LS
early development stages
W. Mike Ventham and Jiben BhaUacharyya, M. W.KeUogg Ltd., UK
The significance of LNG as the fuel of the future is increasing year after year. This trend is particularly
strong for developing countries which either do not have sufficient indigenous fwol resources or whose demands for
e outweigh the supply of
cc .otional fuel. whether local or imported. Increasing environmental consciousness worldwide makes consideration of LNG, or pipeline gas where feasible, mandatory in assessing the future fuel needs of many countries.
LNG import is part of an overall LNG chain: the gathering and transmission of field gases into a liquefaction plant, arrangement of sufficient numbers of LNG carriers to deliver the product, successful conclusion of sales contracts to various countries/locations, development of the LNG import terminal itself, followed by the gas transmission network to the users - constituting a highly interactive chain. Because the chain is both interactive and extended very careful consideration must be given in the planning and subsequent development of LNG import terminal projects.
I, ., well recognised that the earliest
p in development of a new project arC."e most critical in achieving a successfully executed project. Indeed there is a well reported relationship, as shown in Figure 1, demonstrating that the potential for cost saving I·educes sharply as a project progresses.
The LNG import terminal under consideration is deemed to consist of a plant involving:
LNG ship berthing and unloading
LNG vapour handling
LNG vaporisation and sendout
Utilities and support facilities.
The scope sometimes includes short distances of gas sendout pipework for connection to existing or future gas transmission networks or to a power plant. If the gas pipeline is of substantial distance. i.e. more than 10 km. then the pipeline is generally handled by the
0)· I developer as a separate contract.
article considers the typical early ph,,~es in an LNG import terminal project
construction phase (EPC). Whatever the EPC contract type, it is common for a full basic engineering design otherwise known as Front End
(FEED) to be carried out by a consultant or contractor.
The start of EPC represents the end stage of the early project period. The starting point for the consultant is generally the development of a preliminary feasibility study. Between this very early phase and the final basic engineering phase there can be several different study
Figure 1: Project
Execu C> :"':'IV
urn over oeratlons
activities, often overlapping in content depending on the nature and practice of the owner/developer and sometimes also depending upon requirements imposed by...