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Emulsion Aggregation (EA) toner containing jojoba wax

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000200834D
Publication Date: 2010-Oct-27
Document File: 3 page(s) / 103K

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

Abstract

This idea proposes Emulsion Aggregation (EA) toner formulations for Xerographic Cold-Pressure Fix (CPF) designs in which a conventional "polymethylene" wax is replaced by jojoba wax. Jojoba wax is a natural wax ester derived from the oil of the jojoba plant. Even without optimization, fusing performance of these new toners is comparable to those made with conventional waxes. This finding provides an avenue for the use of bio-derived, chemically well-defined wax in toner products. This idea is especially important for CPF applications where wax provides plasticization that enables toner to be fused to paper at moderate pressures. Carnauba wax, another bio-derived material, has been used in experimental toners in the past but has been found to be difficult to incorporate into toner due to the wax's high melting point. Toner made with jojoba wax has a somewhat ultra low melt effect. Relative to toner made without wax, toner containing jojoba wax had better release from the fuser roll. At typical CPF pressures, the CPF formulated toner containing jojoba wax has experimentally performed slightly better than a control toner of the same design that contained conventional wax.

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Emulsion Aggregation (EA) toner containing jojoba wax

This idea proposes Emulsion Aggregation (EA) toner formulations for Xerographic Cold-Pressure Fix (CPF) designs in which a conventional "polymethylene" wax is replaced by jojoba wax.  Jojoba wax is a natural wax ester derived from the oil of the jojoba plant. Even without optimization, fusing performance of these new toners is comparable to those made with conventional waxes. This finding provides an avenue for the use of bio-derived, chemically well-defined wax in toner products. This idea is especially important for CPF applications where wax provides plasticization that enables toner to be fused to paper at moderate pressures. Carnauba wax, another bio-derived material, has been used in experimental toners in the past but has been found to be difficult to incorporate into toner due to the wax's high melting point. Toner made with jojoba wax has a somewhat ultra low melt effect.  Relative to toner made without wax, toner containing jojoba wax had better release from the fuser roll. At typical CPF pressures, the CPF formulated toner containing jojoba wax has experimentally performed slightly better than a control toner of the same design that contained conventional wax.

Background

Oil-less fusing of EA toners is achieved by incorporating a small amount of wax into the toner during the aggregation stage. On fusing, the wax melts and is driven to the toner particle surface, where it provides release from the fuser roll. In cold-pressure fix, wax provides plasticization that enables toner to be fused to paper at moderate pressures (toners without wax require very high pressures to achieve satisfactory cold-pressure fix). The waxes currently used in EA toners are based either on polyethylene (ultimately derived from petroleum) or “polymethylene” (ultimately derived from coal via the Fischer-Tropsch process). The industrial preparation of these waxes produces a range of molecular weights, leading to a wide melting range.  Wax distillation under vacuum – an expensive and energy-intensive process – is sometimes required.  There is a need for chemically well-defined waxes that do not require distillation. In addition, there is a desire to incorporate more bio-derived raw materials into toner, both for environmental reasons and to reduce the influence of fossil fuel-linked price fluctuations on toner manufacturing costs. Carnauba wax, derived from the cuticle of a palm tree that grows only in northern

Brazil

, has been used in experimental toners in the past. However, this wax is somewhat high melting, can be difficult to incorporate into toner, and is chemically ill-defined.

Description of the idea

This idea proposes the use of jojoba wax as an alternative, naturally derived wax for EA toners for both conventional fusing and cold-pressure fix (CPF).

Jojoba wax is the hydrogenation product of jojoba oil, which is derived from the seeds of a plant native to the southwestern

United States...