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The MW Kellogg Company Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000217202D
Publication Date: 2012-May-04
Document File: 53 page(s) / 2M

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THE M.W. KELLOGG COMPANY FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS

T.E. JOHNSON

and

P.K. NICCUM

The M.W. Kellogg Company, USA


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THE M.W. KELLOGG COMPANY FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS


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INTRODUCTION
FEEDSTOCKS
PRODUCTS
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
PROCESS VARLABLES
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL CATALYST and CHEMICALS CONSUMPTION INVESTMENT COSTS and UTILITIES


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Contributors Johnson, Niccum Handbook Title
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1. INTRODUCTION


Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is a process for converting higher molecular

weight hydrocarbons into lighter, more valuable products through contact with a

powdered catalyst at appropriate process conditions. Typically, the FCC process is used

to convert excess refinery gas oils and heavier refinery streams into gasoline, C, and C,

olefins, and light cycle oil, bringing refinery output more in-line with product market

demands. FCC is often the heart of a modem refinery due to its adaptability to

changing feedstocks and product demands and due to high margins that exist between FCC feedstocks and converted FCC products. As oil refining has evolved over the last 50 years, the FCC processes has evolved with it, meeting the challenges of cracking heavier, more contaminated feedstocks, increasing operating flexibility, accommodating environmental legislation and maximizing reliability. In 1990, The M.W. Kellogg Company and Mobil Oil Corporation joined together to offer the FCC technology discussed here.

HB OF PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES


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Contributors Johnson, Niccum Handbook Title

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2. FEEDSTOCKS


The modern FCC unit can accept a broad range of feedstocks, a fact which

contributes to cat cracking's reputation as one of the most flexible refining processes.

Examples of common feedstocks for a conventional distillate feed FCC are listed below:

0 Atmospheric gas oil

Vacuum gas oil

Coker gas oils

Thermally cracked gas oils

Solvent deasphalted oils

0 Lube extracts

Hydrocracker bottoms


Resid FCCs (RFCC) charge conradson carbon residue and metals-contaminated

feedstocks, such as atmospheric residues or mixtures of vacuum residue and gas oils. Depending on the level of carbon residue, sulfur and metallic contaminants (nickel, vanadium and sodium), these feedstocks may be hydrotreated or deasphalted before being fed to an RFCC. Feed hydrotreating or deasphalting reduces the carbon residue and metals of the feed, reducing both the coke-making tendency of the feed and catalyst deactivation.

HB OF PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES 2-1


Page 05 of 53

Contributors Johnson, Niccum
Handbook Title HB OF PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES

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PRODUCTS

Products from the FCC and RFCC processes are typically as follows:

Fuel gas (ethane and lighter hydrocarbons)

Hydrogen sulfide

C, and C,LPG

Gasoline

Light Cycle Oil

Fractionator bottoms product (slurry oil)

Coke ( combusted internally to produce regenerator flue gas)

Although gasoline is typically the desired product from an FCC or RFCC, design

a...