Best Available Practices for LNG Fueling of Fleet Vehicles
Publication Date: 2012-May-07
The IP.com Prior Art Database
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Best Available Practices for LNG Fueling of
I eet Vehicles
DAN E. MlDGElT (Speaker),II'
LINDA W. ECHTERHOFF The M.W. Kellogg Company Houston, Texas
ALISSA J. OPPENHEIMER Gas Research lnstifute
' Currently with Air Productsand Chemical, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania ABSTRACT
For many years, natural gas has been promoted as a preferred alternative vehicle fuel. There are a variety of incentives to use natural gas including: improving national security by reducing reliance on foreign oil imports, meeting stringent air emissions guidelines, and utilizing a lower-costfuel which is in ample domestic supply. Although liquefied naturalgas (LNG) was first demonstratedas a vehicle fuel in 1965, compressed natural gas (CNG) has been the fuel with the widest use to date. However, LNG is now gaining popularity as a vehicle fuel because of its higher energy density and transportability.
Known LNG projectswere polled to determine a list of representativesites that then were studied in depth. Data gathered from the representative sites were summarized to describe current industry practices, and a consensus was formed of best available practicesfor the industry. A summary of the results of the industry assessment is presented here, and the problemsand successes of the industry are candidly discussed. The full resultsof this work and other related studies will be made available to the industry as part of GRl's "Best Practices for NaturalGas Transit & FleetOperations". The purpose of these documents is to provide the LNG vehicle industrywith design and operating information,which, in turn, will improve the safety and benefits of using natural gas vehicles (NGVs).
ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT PRACTICES (STATE OFTHE ART)
The following categories represent a compilation of literature, survey, and site visit data gathered. An assessment of regulatory and environmental, system design, LNG supply, operating and maintenance, economic, safety, and other issues are addressed below.
LNG fueling stations are not currently covered by one consistent set of regulations. The development of NFPA (NationalFire Protection Association) 57, Standard for Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicu lar Fuel Systems, was undertaken to consolidate the regulations, but has not been approved yet. The following codes and practices have been used by past projects to define the regulatory requirementsof an LNG vehicle fueling facility:
Page 1 8/22/96
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Gas ProcessorsAssociation 75th Annual Convention
Automotive and Marine Service Station Code Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Production, Storage, and Handling of LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Federal Safety Standards
* In Canada: Z276-M89, and MC-338
State and local regulations in many cases govern the requirementsfor LNG stations in their jurisdiction. A summary of these requirements is beyond the scope of this paper. Often, informationon lo...