Ammonia 2000: Kellogg KAAP/KRES Technology
Publication Date: 2012-May-07
The IP.com Prior Art Database
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AMMONIA 2000: KELLOGG KAAP/KRES TECHNOLOGY PRESENTED AT
FAI SEMINAR 1996 6-7 DECEMBER 1996
J. R. LE BLANC
THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
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In November of 1992, The M.W. Kellogg Company put into service the Kellogg Advanced Ammonia Process -W-
the world's first commercial production of ammonia over a non- iron based catalyst. In October of 1994, the Kellogg Reforming Exchanger System - KRES, a simple heat-exchanger based steam reforming process used for the generation of ammonia synthesis gas, was commissioned. Both of the new technologies were put into operation at Pacific Ammonia Incorporated's (formerly Ocelot Ammonia) ammonia plant at Kitimat, Brit- ish Columbia, Canada.
KAAP and KRES have been commercial and operating successes from their original start up dates. Both have achieved performance levels meeting or exceeding flowsheet expectations. Reception of these new technologies by the international ammonia industry has been excellent. Kellogg has underway the design of two grassroots 1850 MTPD KAAP based ammonia plants. Several KAAP based expansion projects for existing plants are in engineering with start up expected in 1996 and 1997. After closely monitoring the KRES unit at Pacific Ammonia for first several months of it's operation, Kellogg reached the position of offering KRES on future ammonia projects in the latter part of 1995. Feedback and acceptance of KRES has been very good.
With this new technology commercially proven and available, Kellogg is able to offer the in- dustry an integrated KAAP/KRES ammonia plant which is unique in the market place and can position the operator to be a true low cost producer in a highly competitive industry. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the integrated KAAPlKRES flowsheet and highlight the benefits it affords the ammonia producer.
Figure 1 shows the overall processing scheme integrating KAAP and KRES. Natural gas feed undergoes feed pretreatment using conventional means, typically hot zinc oxide for sulfur
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rermrval. After demlf!urizatiun, the feed gas is routed to the reformi= secgon orthe @am. Reforming the natural gas in this flowsheet is done in a KRES unit. Downstream of KRES the raw synthesis gas is processed for heat recovery and additional hydrogen production in both high and low temperature shift conversion steps. The gas, after C02 removal and methanation, is further purified in a drying operation and sent to a single case centrifugal synthesis gas compressor. The ammonia synthesis loop employs the KAAP technology, which uses a highly active catalyst, capable of superior performance at low temperature and low pressure. The ammonia recovery step uses mechanical refrigeration which embodies unique equipment designs such as the unitized refrigeration exchanger.
The major features of this process scheme include:
* Application of KRES and the elimination of the fired primary reformer...