Inspection of the Kellogg Reforming Exchanger System (KRES)
Publication Date: 2012-May-07
The IP.com Prior Art Database
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INSPECTION OF THE
KELLOGG REFORMING EXCHANGER SYSTEM (KRES)
J. R. Le Blanc
S. A. Knez
A. E. Cover
In the last several year$e technologyt-
In October 1996, the complex at Kitimat u m o o ka turnaround. Although KRES worked quite well, Kellogg and PA1 d
the opportunity to fully inspect the KRES unit. Thus after about two years of operation, KRES was subjected to an extensive inspection. The inspection showed that the unit, including the catalysts, were in excellent condition. This paper is presented to provide informationon that
M. W. Kellogg Company has introduced new ammonia In November of 1992, Kellogg put into service the
Kellogg Advanced Ammonia Process (KAAP). In October of 1994, the Kellogg Reforming Exchanger System (KRES) started commercial operation. Both of these units were put into operation at the Pacific Ammonia Incorporated, PAI, Ammonia Plant at Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. Both technologies have, and continue to operate well, meeting or exceeding flowsheet requirements.
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the shell side gasses, which consist of the effluent from the autothermal reformer and the effluent from the open tubes in the reforming exchanger. The shell side gasses exit the exchanger for further processing in the ammonia plant.
A key feature of the KRES technology is the design of the autothermal reformer. There is no mixed-burner; a combustion chamber accommodates both the mixing and combustion without a burner. The combustion chamber is a very simple design. As seen in Figure 2, the enriched aidsteam flow is introduced at a high velocity axially at the top end of a long cylindrical chamber. The natural gas and steam feed is introduced radially at the top of the chamber, perpendicular to the enriched air/steam jet. The high velocity of the enriched airlsteam induces mixing between the two gas streams, and the combustion reactions take place instantaneously.
Mechanically, the autothermal reformer consists of a carbon steel pressure shell, the shell external
surface. This is a safety feature that Kellogg has used in this type of equipment for many years.
Figure 3 shows that the configuration of the reforming exchanger is of the open tube design. The catalyst tubes are suspended from a single tube sheet located at the cold end of the exchanger. With the open tube configuration, each tube is free td
with a dual layer refractory liner. A water jacket i-
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grow without restriction. Because the flow scheme uses parallel operation, the pressure differential across the tube sheet is limited to the exchanger pressure drop.
The shell of the exchanger is carbon steel with a water jacket inclu--
external surface. As noted above on the autothermal reformer, this is a safety feature used by Kellogg. Also like the autothermal...