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Low Emissions with Advanced LNG Vaporization Processes

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000217685D
Publication Date: 2012-May-10

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The IP.com Prior Art Database

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Low Emissions with Advanced LNG Vaporization Processes

Joseph H. Cho, Ph.D., P.E.

Technical Advisor - Process
Heinz Kotz.ot


Section Leader, LNG & Gas" Processing
Himanshu Patel

Technolog~ Manager
Charles Durr


Director LNG, GTL and Gas Processing

Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. Houston, Texas 77002

ABSTRACT

In order to comply with the LNG industry's requirements for minimizing life cycle costs, many vaporization processes have been proposed and developed. However, the constraints in the selection of a feasible LNG vaporization scheme are often site- specific environmental issues, especially for the planned North American terminals. Without proper attention to these site-specific issues, a project can be seriously delayed or even its realization may be jeopardized.

This paper reviews the environmental issues imposed on LNG vaporization and discusses the technical and economical features of environmentally friendly vaporization processes. The processes discussed in this paper include the following:

¯ Open Rack Vaporizers with seawater

¯ Shell and Tube Vaporizers with closed loop heating medium circulation and

Reverse Air Heating

¯ Natural Draft Ambient Air Vaporizer

¯ Shell and Tube Vaporizers with closed loop heating medium circulation and

Forced Draft Air Heater

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KBR Paper 1925

INTRODUCTION

The vaporization process affects not only the terminal's capital expenditure, but also its operating cost. The selected process should be economical, reliable, and use proven technologies, while meeting the regulatory requirements and minimizing the environmental impact.

Baseload Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) regasification terminals have primarily used two types of vaporizers in the past: Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV) and Submerged Combustion Vaporizers

Other types of vaporizers used are Shell and Tube Exchange Vaporizers (STV), with or without intermediate fluid and air to LNG vaporizers with intermediate fluid.

Currently, many different vaporizers and vaporization processes have been developed that use either one type of vaporizer or a combination of different types of vaporizers~

This paper reviews the environmental issues imposed on LNG vaporization and discusses the technical and economical features of the advanced vaporization processes, which use reusable energy as a vaporization heat source. These include seawater and ambient air.

The discussion of SCV and STV dedicated with the fired heaters (FH) are excluded in the review of the vaporization processes because these processes use the vaporizaed LNG as fuel, which generate considerable amount of green gas (CO2), nitric acid (NOx) and mono carbon oxide (CO).

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION

Air Emission

Air quality is primarily determined by the type and amount of contaminants, the topography of the air basin, and meteorological conditions. An emission estimate should include discharges from the vaporizer, emergency generator, gas turbines, fire water pump engines, vent]fla...