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ADVANCED DESIGN OF LNG TERMINALS AND ITS ECONOMICS

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000217749D
Publication Date: 2012-May-10

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ADVANCED DESIGN OF LNG TERMINALS AND ITS ECONOMICS

Felix F de la Vega

Himanshu Patel

KBR

Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. Houston, Texas 77002

     Prepared for Presentation at the
LNG Conference - December 2, 2003 Calgary "The Potential for LNG in North America"

Copyright © Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.

December 2003


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ABSTRACT

The gap between gas supply and demand in North America continues to widen resulting in renewed interest and tremendous growth prospect for LNG import terminals. This paper reviews the drivers behind LNG import terminals, their design considerations and major factors impacting their cost. Innovative possibilities are being developed, specifically for offshore regasification units as well as integration of LNG import terminals with power generation plants. These developments will lead to low cost gas supply for the benefit of the consumers.


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ADVANCED DESIGN OF LNG TERMINALS AND ITS ECONOMIC

Introduction

The worldwide liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade has increased steadily (over 5 % average per year) since the industry began. This trend is expected to continue as natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for electric power providers and as developing countries increase their energy demands. The receiving terminal is the last link in the LNG chain between the gas well-head and the final consumer.

The sizes and types of equipment found in an LNG receiving terminal fall outside the normal gas processing experience; LNG receiving terminals do not generally involve gas treating units for sweetening or dew-point control, LPG recovery units, or gas compression stations. This paper reviews the LNG receiving terminal process and equipment currently in common practice by KBR, the designer of 23 of the last 33 terminals worldwide.

In addition, future possibilities are also explored. As the industry matures and grows KBR sees potential for interesting new concepts that might be applied in the relentless pursuit of lower life cycle cost facilities.

The LNG Chain

LNG chain can be viewed as a flexible pipeline for transporting gas from the supply sources to the end consumers. This is shown schematically in Figure 1.

Figure 1 - The LNG Chain

Gas Field Liquefaction LNG Storage
Plant Tank-

PRODUCING REGION

CONSUMING REGION


The LNG chain begins with gas production, partial treatment and transportation via pipeline to the liquefaction plant where the gas is received, treated, liquefied and stored in cryogenic tanks. The LNG is then transported to terminals close to the consumer via LNG tankers where it is unloaded into storage tanks. The demand flowrate of LNG is vaporized and sent to the consumers via pipelines.

Pipeline versus LNG Comparison

The gas suppliers are faced with the dilemma of how best to transport gas to the market in an efficient, reliable and economic way. The two options that are often compared are pipeline and

LNGI1'21. Gas transmission via pipeline is common, accounting for 75% of international...