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Environmental Management for the Fertilizer Industry

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000219989D
Publication Date: 2012-Jul-18

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

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Page 01 of 38

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR THE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

By

Dr. Hassan M. Gomaa &
Joseph R. LeBlanc

The M. W. Kellogg Company Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

   This paper reviews and evaluates the pollution control needs of the nitrogen fertilizer industry. It includes a description of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate and urea manufacturing processes and an evaluation of the pollution reduction potential of alternative control techniques. Air emission and liquid effluent sources are identified, present and potential control technology are reviewed for each industry. Both "in-process" and "end-of- process" add-on treatment technologies are addressed, as it is these which enable existing and future nitrogen fertilizer plants to meet pollution control standards and guidelines.

   The production of fertilizer very often involves a complex of more or less integrated plants in which more than one product is manufactured in order to optimize production costs. Moreover, this arrangement appears advantageous relative to potential pollution problems. Advantages with respect to air and water pollution arise from recycling and reuse. This paper will address these areas in detail. The future of the nitrogen fertilizer industry is highly
dependent upon energy costs. Therefore, it is important that, insofar as practicable, the energy penalties associated with the installation of pollution control systems be minimized as demonstrated by this paper,


Page 02 of 38

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR THE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

By

Dr. Hassan M. Gomaa and Mr. Joseph R. LeBlanc

The M. W. Kellogg Company, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.


1.0 INTRODUCTION

The basic nitrogenous fertilizer chemicals are ammonia, urea, and ammonium nitrate. Urea and ammonium nitrate are made from ammonia.

There are many other nitrogen fertilizers produced, however, these are formed by combinations and/or additions to these three compounds.

One of the major developments in the industrial world has been the construction and operation of multi-plant fertilizer manufacturing complexes. The heart of these complexes is usually a large single train ammonia plant. Integrated with it are various combinations of plants for the production of ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, urea and many other combination products. This concentration of large scale facilities and the improved processes which have incorporated into the operations have enabled considerable economics in production costs. It has also provided a potential for the release of greater quantities of pollutants, and has required increased care to control the emissions and protect the environment.

The future of the nitrogen fertilizer industry is highly dependent upon energy costs. Therefore, it is important that, insofar as practicable, the energy penalties associated with the installation of pollution control systemsshould be minimized. In addition, a careful examination should be made of how much pollution control regulations the nitrogen fertilizer i...