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Seminar-Chemical Fertilizer

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000221770D
Publication Date: 2012-Sep-15

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

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Pullman Kellogg

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Kellogg Continental B,V.

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SEMINAR ON "CHEMICAL FERTILISERS"

IRAN, MARCH 1978



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¯ ~ Pullman KELLOGG CONTINENTAL
Kellogg

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SEMINAR ON "CHE:IICAL FERTILISERS" IN I:,AN, ~.IARCH 1978

TITLE: "Considerations in Planning a Fertiliser
Complex in Developing Countries"

AUTHORS: J.A. BENES Senior Process Engineer,
Kellogg Continental, Amsterdam.

T. KOOIJ Senior Process Engineer.

Kellogg Continental, Amsterdam.

W. ~I. VENTHAM ~lanager, Process Department, Kellogg Continental, Amsterdam.

ABSTRACT

The planning of iertiliser projects in developing countries is considered, including technological problems.

The paper contrasts some of the conditions found in Central Africa and the Midd!e East. Similarities such as - infrastructure, the concept of 'grassroots' complexes, the use of established technology, schedule problems, as well as differences such as raw materials availability, market requirement for products, financing, profitability criteria, are discussed.

The history ~f a typical project in developing countries.is outlined. The evaluation phase includes - cost and availability of raw materials, agronomic considerations, scale of operation, selection of process units, feasibility studies, establishment of optimum project parameters, and environmental requirements.

The activities from the decision to commence with the project through early plant operation are then considered. Such features as - consultant participation, type of contract, selection of contractor and/or process licensor, project schedule, training of Owner's )ersonnel, start-up, initial operation, maintenance- are covered.


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~.~ .Pullrnan
Kellogg
KELLOGG CONTINENTAL

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INTRODUCTION

The past decade has seen a tremendous expansion in the chemical fertiliser industry.

In Europe and North America this expansion has generally consisted of additions to existing facilities and the occasional construction of grassroots facilities in countries which already had flourishing chemical fertiliser ~ndustries. In other countries,, which we have termed 'developing' countries~ the chemical fertiliser industry has been established during this decade.

The Pullman Kellogg organisation was fortunate to be engaged in the establishment of fertiliser projects in several of these so-called 'developing' countries.

We 'consider this to have been a unique period in the chemical fertiliser industry and we felt it useful to put on record the 'case histories' of three projects which were undertaken in 'developing' countries.

Projects ~n Iran, Cameroun and Tanzania were selected, All of them phosphate-based fertiliser complexes and because we feel that these projects are sufficiently representative of other projects undertaken in neighbouring areas we are attempting to describe factors and considerations in the general areas, Middle East and Central Africa, rather than in the individua...