VOLATILE AZONINE , DIAZONINE AND TRIAZONINE AND AZONINATE, DIAZONINATE, AND TRIAZONINATE METAL COMPLEXES
Publication Date: 2014-Mar-06
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AZONINATE, DIAZONINATE, AND TRIAZONINATE METAL COMPLEXES
 The semiconductor fabrication industry continues to source volatile metal containing precursors for vapor deposition processes, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), for fabricating conformal metal containing films on substrates, such as: silicon, metal nitride, metal oxide and other metal-containing layers, using these metal-containing precursors.
 Barium and strontium containing precursors are especially sought after for the deposition of thin barium and strontium oxide containing thin films, such as strontium titanate (STO) and barium strontium titanate (BST) for advanced memory device manufacture.
 Strontium precursors are also useful for the thin film deposition of ferroelectric materials of the type SrBi2Ta2O9 for non-volatile memory. They are also useful for the fabrication of thin film highTc superconductors of the type Bi2Sr2Ca n-1Cu nO5+(2n-1)d and for fabricating SrS:Ce and SrS:Cu phosphors for electroluminescent displays.
 Although there are fluorinated precursors which have excellent volatility, their use for STO or BST manufacturing is effectively precluded, since fluoride ion can form in the oxide film and act as a charge carrier, which degrades the dielectric constant of the oxide film.
 Thus, there is a strong need for volatile unfluorinated strontium and barium precursor compounds with high ALD performance, but such compounds are scarce. This stems from the large ionic radius of the strontium +2 and barium +2 ions requiring ionic ligands which can provide a coordinating environment sufficient to provide compounds which are monomeric or dimeric in barium and strontium.
 If this requirement is not met, the strontium, and especially the barium compounds, tend- to form highly associated or polymeric structures of limited volatility. However, even if monomeric or dimeric structures can be achieved, they may still not possess the thermal stability required to survive the high sublimation or distillation temperatures required for their vaporization or to survive as monolayers in ALD. For all of these reasons, unfluorinated barium and strontium precursors, which are monomeric or dimeric, themally stable, readily volatile and highly suited to BST and STO manufacture by ALD or CVD, are extremely scarce but highly sought after.
 Besides alkaline earth precursors, there is also a need for stable and volatile low melting metal precursors for a plethora of applications for growing metal containing films by CVD, ALD, PECVD and pulsed CVD.
 Present inve...