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# IMPEDANCE BASED MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING (MPPT) ALGORITHM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) APPLICATIONS AND FUEL CELLS

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000235671D
Publication Date: 2014-Mar-19
Document File: 8 page(s) / 353K

## Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

## Abstract

The invention proposes an algorithm for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for a photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell applications. Reference variables in the algorithm includes as quotient of a direct current (DC) voltage and DC current in order to obtain DC impedance (Zdc).

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# BRIEF ABSTRACT

The invention proposes an algorithm for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for a photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell applications. Reference variables in the algorithm includes as quotient of a direct current (DC) voltage and DC current in order to obtain DC impedance (Zdc).

# KEYWORDS

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), Photovoltaic (PV), solar modules, fuel cells

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Electrical power from a power source varies in accordance with condition of the power source. The power source includes fuel cell, photovoltaic module among others. The power source outputs electricity with alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

Photovoltaic (PV) module and fuel cells do not provide efficient electric power output.

Therefore, there is a need for a technique to provide efficient electric power output by the photovoltaic module and the fuel cell.

The invention proposes an algorithm for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell applications. The algorithm includes reference variables as quotient of a direct current (DC) voltage and a DC current in order to obtain DC impedance (Zdc).  Value of the Zdc divided by an actual voltage reflects a slope. The Zdc value is utilized for calculation and tracking of maximum power point. When solar irradiation on the PV generator varies from 1000 W/m2 down to 500 W/m2, electric output of the PV array varies. Figure 1 depicts an increase of the slope of the impedance (Zdc).  A similar analogy is utilized with partial shadowing of the generator. Figure 2 depicts variation in power output by shadowing. Essential calculation of algorithms is to minimize the slope of impedance when voltage is varied. The slope of Zdc decreases with increase in electric power output.  Figure 3 depicts full output power to minimize slope of impedance. A certain value of slope of Zdc is calculated. Figure 4 depicts calculation of DC and alternating current (AC) impedance for the PV-inverter at constant voltage. As illustrated in FIGURE 4, the calculation of impedance initiates with initial point of operation. Then, shadow arrives and finally voltage is adju...