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A New Configuration of EV Charging Station Enables Multiple EVs as Power Sources to Perform Rapidly Charging

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000238134D
Publication Date: 2014-Aug-04
Document File: 12 page(s) / 7M

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

Related People

Chao Yang: AUTHOR [+4]

Abstract

Nowadays, with the fast developing pacing of the of EV technology, EVs play a more important role than only for transportation. According to the reference [1], "Opportunities and Chanllenges of Vehicle-to-Home, Vehicle-to-Vehicle, and Vehicle-to-Grid Technologies", EVs can be either directly plugged into the power grid to absorb energy as loads or to deliver energy as resources. Three different emerging concepts of EV technologies can be summarized as Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). Two prior arts, patents [2, 3] have been found, both of which focused on one vehicle to one vehicle directly connected charging. Apparently, the existing V2V methods are not suitable for large scale applications. Keeping the rapidly increasing quantity of EVs in perspective, building up the charging stations with various charging modes, higher charging speed, lower cost and less burden to the power grid become more and more urgent. The typical modern EV charging stations can be divided into two types according to the different bus bar arrangements: AC bus based station and DC bus based station. For the AC bus based station, each charger is equipped with a full power AC/DC - DC/DC converter. While for the DC bus based station, normally a central AC/DC converter will be installed to replace the distributed AC/DC converters, which leads to efficiency improvement and capital cost saving. 1. The existing V2V charging methods are not suitable for large amount EVs charging. 2. In both AC based and DC based charging station solutions, all converters used in the EV chargers are full-power converters, which bring high cost, high losses and large foot print/weight. 3. For DC bus based charging station, a central AC/DC converter may increase the total efficiency of the charging station. The capacity of central AC/DC converter may be reduced comparing to the total capacity of second stage DC/DC converters. However, the capacity of central AC/DC converter is still considerably large to energize the DC bus. 4. Considering the V2V operation mode in existing solutions, energy from a discharging EV battery to a charging EV battery will flow through two full-power converter based chargers, which leads to the increased power loss. The features of the proposed configuration are: 1) Proposed charging station configuration can realize flexible V2V fast charging via different charging modes. Multiple fully charged EVs can be flexibly arranged as the power sources to charge one EV simultaneously, which brings the merits of more rapidly charging and less damage risk of the EV batteries. The charging current will only flow through one partial-capacity charger, which should decrease the power loss dramatically. 2) New DC/DC topology for EV charger will be employed. With the proposed topology, the required power capacity of the converter system can be reduced significantly. 3) Compared to DC bus based charging station, the central AC/DC converter can be removed or the capacity of central AC/DC converter can be reduced. The proposed solution provides improved redundancy of EV charging station, as the charging and discharging operation can be operated among different EV chargers. 1) For charging station owners - It provides methods to decrease the converter capacity without reducing charging capacity. - The EVs can be charged more rapidly, which could increase the daily serving quantity of EVs. 2) For EV owners - The surplus energy from their EVs’ batteries can be sold to others conveniently. - Attributes to the faster charging speed, more time can be saved. The capital cost of EV charger can be reduced by applying the proposed solution, which for sure will spur the business mode innovation in EV charging area and strengthen the competence of ABB in the EV charging market.

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Invention Title: A New Configuration of EV Charging Station Enables Multiple EVs as Power Sources to Perform Rapidly Charging

This innovative idea is suitable to be applied for Electrical Automobile charging stations or Electrical Boat charging docks, both the Electrical Automobile and the Electrical Boat will be mentioned as the Electrical Vehicle (EV) hereafter. The charging stations, equipped with the proposed configuration, can provide both slow and fast charging services for the EVs via various charging modes. The fast charging function is realized by the new topology, which allows using multiple fully charged EVs as the power sources to perform the charging operation together with the charging station converters. Meanwhile, no additional cost for enlarging the capacity of the converters is required.

Abstract of the Invention

Background

Nowadays, with the fast developing pacing of the of EV technology, EVs play a more important role than only for transportation. According to the reference [1], EVs can be either directly plugged into the power grid to absorb energy as loads or to deliver energy as resources. As shown in Fig. 1, three different emerging concepts of EV technologies can be summarized as Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G).

Figure 1 Illustration of the three emerging concepts of EV technologies [1]

Two prior arts, patents [2, 3] have been found, both of which focused on one vehicle to one vehicle directly connected charging. Apparently, the existing V2V methods are not suitable for large scale applications. Keeping the rapidly increasing quantity of EVs in perspective, building up the charging stations with various charging modes, higher charging speed, lower cost and less burden to the power grid become more and more urgent.

The typical modern EV charging stations can be divided into two types according to the different bus bar arrangements: AC bus based station and DC bus based station, shown in Fig.2 (a) and Fig. 2 (b), respectively.

 

(a) AC bus based station                                   (b) DC bus based station

Figure 2 Typical Electrical Layout of EV Charging Station

For the AC bus based station, each charger is equipped with a full power AC/DC - DC/DC converter. While for the DC bus based station, normally a central AC/DC converter will be installed to replace the distributed AC/DC converters, which leads to efficiency improvement and capital cost saving.

State of problems

1.     The existing V2V charging methods are not suitable for large amount EVs charging.

2.     In both AC based and DC based charging station solutions, all converters used in the EV chargers are full-power converters, which bring  high cost, high losses and large foot print/weight.

3.     For DC bus based charging station, a central AC/DC converter may increase the total efficiency of the charging station. The capacity of central AC/DC converter may be reduced comparing to the total...