Enzyme Selective Fractionation and Hydrolysis of Palm Kernel Meal Cake
Publication Date: 2015-May-26
The IP.com Prior Art Database
A process for producing palm kernel cake/meal hydrolysate is disclosed. The process consisted of an enzyme selective fractionation and hydrolysis of palm kernel cake components resulting in a soluble hydrolysate composition with reduced phytic acid. In other aspects, the invention provides an enzymatic composition for producing palm kernel protein concentrate.
Palm Kernel Cake /Meal (PKC/M), a significant by-product of the palm oil extraction process is commercially available in large quantities, easy to handle and economically advantageous in a number of countries including Malaysia, Indonesia and Nigeria when compared to other oil seeds meals like soy bean and peanut. Palm kernel meal is a common feed ingredient, particularly in ruminant feeding. Palm Kernel meal typically contains 15-20% protein, 50-55% carbohydrate , 5% residual oil , 10-12% crude fiber, 3-5% ash and 5-8% moisture. It has very poor in nutritional value compared to major oil meals due its low protein content and its high quantity of cell wall constituents (crude fiber, lignin and galactomannan, etc). The poor solubility/digestibility of proteins and the complex nature of carbohydrate (galactomannan) currently restrict the wide spread use of PKC/M for mono-gastric animals feed application. However, the utilization of PKC as a poultry feed is restricted to only 30 % of the total diet due to the presence of high indigestible fiber content and low metabolisable energy (ME) value. Extensive studies including different pretreatments followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of PKM (Jose Maria Cervero, etal, 2010) has been evaluated for enhancing the digestibility and nutritional value, exploring PKM as a potential source of valuable feed stock in animal feed applications.
Jose Maria Cervero et.al (2010) studied the effect of different enzymes, including β-mannanase, cellulase, mannosidase, β-galactosidase, α-galactosidase and pectinase on the hydrolysis of PKM and pretreated PKM. In addition to these enzymes treatments, they also studied different pretreatment of PKM prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment included autoclaving at 110oC for 11 min and heating PKM at 180oC for 10 minutes. Their results showed that PKM demonstrated a potential raw material for producing fermentable sugars. The hydrolysis tests showed that the yield of monosaccharides obtained represented nearly 75% of the total polysaccharides content in PKC. Pretreatment using autoclave resulted in no added benefits either in the total hydrolysis or on the final composition of the hydrolysate. Saenphoom, et.al (2011) reported that pre-treating PKC with exogenous enzyme degraded its cellulose and hemicelluloses components releasing more soluble sugars which can be used by mono-gastric animals like poultry.
WO 2012/047430 disclosed a method for preparing mannose from palm kernel waste comprising: contacting the palm kernel waste with a pectinase and a mannanase, wherein the amount of mannose produced by contacting the palm kernel waste with the pectinase and the mannanase is greater than the amount of mannose produced by contacting an equal amount of palm kernel waste with an equivalent amount mannanase in the absence o...