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A Biodegradable Biocide

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000241915D
Publication Date: 2015-Jun-08
Document File: 3 page(s) / 19K

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

Related People

David Armstrong: INVENTOR [+2]

Abstract

Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) have been utilized as biocidal agents in the oil field for many years. Chain length plays a role in the efficacy of the biocide with C8 - C16 hydrophobic tails being among the most effective. Biocidal efficacy also decreases at chain lengths of C18 and greater. It is thought that the longer chains affect the outer membranes of microorganisms more effectively than shorter compounds by interacting with the fatty acid portion of the membrane. Additionally, monoalkyl quats bind by ionic and hydrophobic interactions to microbe surfaces with the cationic ammonium head facing the surrounding medium and the hydrophobic tails inserted into the lipid bilayer. This causes a disruption of the lipid bilayer and leakage of the intracellular contents and eventual cellular lysis.

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A Biodegradable Biocide

Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) have been utilized as biocidal agents in the oil field for many years.  Chain length plays a role in the efficacy of the biocide with C8 - C16 hydrophobic tails being among the most effective.  Biocidal efficacy also decreases at chain lengths of C18 and greater.  It is thought that the longer chains affect the outer membranes of microorganisms more effectively than shorter compounds by interacting with the fatty acid portion of the membrane.  Additionally, monoalkyl quats bind by ionic and hydrophobic interactions to microbe surfaces with the cationic ammonium head facing the surrounding medium and the hydrophobic tails inserted into the lipid bilayer.  This causes a disruption of the lipid bilayer and leakage of the intracellular contents and eventual cellular lysis.

A quaternary amine based biocide could be synthesized with a bond susceptible to hydrolysis by intracellular enzymes.  In this way, the biocide would target and destroy the bacterial cell which would, in turn, release into the surrounding environment enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the biocide and rendering it non-toxic.  In another embodiment, a joinable linkage could be included in the alkyl chain of the biocide which could be treated with intracellular enzymes to lengthen the chain with another alkyl group or functional group (incorporated along with the biocide or found naturally in the reservoir) that would increase the chain length to greater than or equal to C18.

Examples of enzymes and linkages used to cleave the alkyl chain resulting in shorter chain lengths include, but are not limited to:

·         hydrolases use water to catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds, glycosidic bonds, ether bonds, peptide bonds, carbon-nitrogen bonds, acid anhydrides, carbon-carbon bonds, halide bonds, phosphorus-nitro...