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SAS 9.1 Language Reference Concepts

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000243169D
Original Publication Date: 2004-Dec-31
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2015-Sep-17
Document File: 652 page(s) / 4M

Publishing Venue

SAS Institute Inc.

This text was extracted from a PDF file.
This is the abbreviated version, containing approximately 2% of the total text.

Page 01 of 652

SAS® 9.1

Language Reference: Concepts



Page 02 of 652

The correct bibliographic citation for this manual is as follows: SAS Institute Inc. 2004. SAS ® 9.1 Language Reference: Concepts. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

SAS® 9.1 Language Reference: Concepts

Copyright © 2004 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA


ISBN 1-59047-198-9
All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, SAS Institute Inc.

U.S. Government Restricted Rights Notice. Use, duplication, or disclosure of this software and related documentation by the U.S. government is subject to the Agreement with SAS Institute and the restrictions set forth in FAR 52.227-19 Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights (June 1987).

SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513.
1st printing, January 2004
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Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies.


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4 Essential Concepts of Base SAS Software 3

What Is SAS? 3


Overview of Base SAS Software 4
Components of the SAS Language 4
Ways to Run Your SAS Session 7
Customizing Your SAS Session 9
Conceptual Information about Base SAS Software 10

Chapter 2

4 SAS Processing 11

Definition of SAS Processing 11
Types of Input to a SAS Program 12 The DATA Step 13
The PROC Step 14

Chapter 3

      4 Rules for Words and Names in the SAS Language 15 Words in the SAS Language 15
Names in the SAS Language 18

Chapter 4

4 SAS Language Elements 23

What Are the SAS Language Elements? 25 Data Set Options 25
Formats and Informats 27
Functions and CALL Routines 38
ARM Macros 55
Statements 69
SAS System Options 71

Chapter 5

4 SAS Variables 77


Definition of SAS Variables 78
SAS Variable Attributes 78
Ways to Create Variables 80
Variable Type Conversions 84
Aligning Variable Values 85
Automatic Variables 85
SAS Variable Lists 86
Dropping, Keeping, and Renaming Variables 88 Numeric Precision in SAS Software 90

Chapter 6

4 Missing Values 101

Definition of Missing Values 101

Contents

P A R T 1 SAS System Concepts 1

Chapter 1



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Special Missing Values 102


Order of Missing Values 103
When Variable Values Are Automatically Set to Missing by SAS 104 When Missing Values Are Generated by SAS 105
Working with Missing Values 107

Chapter 7

4 Expressions 109

Definitions for SAS Exp...