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Prussian blue Based Open Framework Materials for Light Heavy Metal Cation Separation

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000243869D
Publication Date: 2015-Oct-23
Document File: 4 page(s) / 732K

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

Abstract

Isolation of a downhole environment depends on the deployment of a downhole tool that effectively seals the entirety of a borehole or a portion thereof for example an annulus between a casing wall and production tube Swellable packers for example are particularly useful in that they automatically expand to fill the cross sectional area of a borehole in response to one or more downhole fluids However as it was shown by Korte et al in US 2009 0084550 certain downhole conditions such as the presence of monovalent and polyvalent cations e g Ca2 Zn2 etc in the aqueous downhole fluids contacting the swellable packer tend to decrease both the amount of swelling and the rate at which the packer swells Also it was found that the multivalent brines such as ZnBr2 and CaCl2 diminish the performance of swellable rubber compound more severely than the monovalent bines i e NaCl This effect can be explained by the interactions of metal cations present in the brines with the superabsorbing polymers carboxy methyl cellulose acrylate copolymer etc of the rubber compound Therefore to achieve a superior performance of downhole swellable seals it is important to reduce the concentration of cations capable of diffusing inside the body of the swellable seal Recently an application of ion exchange polymers and zeolites was suggested to capture the multivalent cations with simultaneous release of the less detrimental monovalent cations or protons to improve the swelling efficiency of the downhole swellable seals US 13 300 916 filed on 11 21 2011 In US 13 646 028 filed on 10 05 2012 functionalized graphene based materials were suggested for capturing the aforementioned multivalent cations to improve the swelling of downhole seals In carbon nitride nanomaterial was suggested for capturing the polyvalent cations to improve the swelling efficiency of the swellable rubber compounds

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Prussian blue Based Open Framework Materials for Light/Heavy Metal Cation Separation

Isolation of a downhole environment depends on the deployment of a downhole tool that effectively seals the entirety of a borehole or a portion thereof, for example, an annulus between a casing wall and production tube. Swellable packers, for example, are particularly useful in that they automatically expand to fill the cross-sectional area of a borehole in response to one or more downhole fluids. However, as it was shown by Korte et al in US 2009/0084550, certain downhole conditions, such as the presence of monovalent and polyvalent cations (e.g. Ca2+, Zn2+, etc.) in the aqueous downhole fluids contacting the swellable packer, tend to decrease both the amount of swelling and the rate at which the packer swells. Also, it was found that the multivalent brines such as ZnBr2 and CaCl2 diminish the performance of swellable rubber compound more severely than the monovalent bines (i.e. NaCl). This effect can be explained by the interactions of metal cations present in the brines with the superabsorbing polymers (carboxy methyl cellulose, acrylate copolymer, etc.) of the rubber compound. Therefore, to achieve a superior performance of downhole swellable seals, it is important to reduce the concentration of cations capable of diffusing inside the body of the swellable seal. Recently, an application of ion-exchange polymers and zeolites was suggested to capture the multivalent cations with simultaneous release of the less detrimental monovalent cations or protons to improve the swelling efficiency of the downhole swellable seals (US 13/300,916 filed on 11/21/2011).  In US 13/646,028 filed on 10/05/2012, functionalized graphene-based materials were suggested for capturing the aforementioned multivalent cations to improve the swelling of downhole seals. In, carbon nitride nanomaterial was suggested for capturing the polyvalent cations to improve the swelling efficiency of the swellable rubber compounds.

It should be noted that the previously suggested materials are more efficient in capturing the polyvalent ions. For example, cation-exchange resins available from have the following order of selectivity Ba++ > Rb++ > Ca++ > Mg++ > Be++ > Ag+ > Cs+ > Rb+ > K+ > NH4+ > Na+ > H+ > Li+ (). However, as shown in Figure 2 of US 2009/0084550, a reduction of the concentration of monovalent cations can dramatically improve the swelling of the rubber compounds:

Therefore, the performance of swellable downhole seals can be dramatically improved if detrimental monovalent cations capable of diffusing into the body of the seal are captured at least as efficiently as the multivalent ones.

                In this work, we propose to apply Prussian Blue-Based Open Framework Materials capable of capturing the detrimental monovalent/divalent cations for improving the swelling efficiency of the downhole swellable seals. Open framework materials such as Prussian blue family nanomaterials (nickel hexacyanoferr...