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An Efficient and Binary Compatible Means of Migrating an Unprotected, Single Mode Processor Architecture to a Protected, Dual Mode Processor Architecture Disclosure Number: IPCOM000032849D
Original Publication Date: 2004-Nov-15
Included in the Prior Art Database: 2004-Nov-15

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Kim Alexander Bettesworth Phillips


A method is disclosed that allows an unprotected processor architecture to be migrated to a protected (dual-mode) processor architecture. Protected architectures are essential in modern embedded processor applications. Some processors do not implement a protected programming model; all user applications run in supervisor mode. If a user application disables interrupts and enters an infinite loop, the system is compromised. This disclosure addresses the need for protecting privileged processor resources in an unprotected processor architecture, while making minimal architectural changes appropriate for cost sensitive applications. The proposed method takes advantage of the fact that the processor is in one of user or supervisor modes at one point in time. A mode bit is added to the local state, which hardware uses to determine which of the two states ("modes") to use. When code accesses a register, the value used is stripped ("muxed") of its privileged content before performing the operation on the physical register. Instead of requiring new physical registers to dedicate to protection, it utilizes register read/write masks to implement protection. In supervisor mode, the task reads and writes all the bits in the control register. In user mode, the privileged bits of the control register are masked. A user mode read from a control register to a general purpose register (or memory), consequently has the privileged bits substituted with zeros (or ones) in the destination register. A user mode write to a control register has no effect to the privileged bits – only the user accessible bits will be changed to the new value. When migrating from single mode architecture to a dual mode architecture, the cost of changes to the user level ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) and extraneous hardware (physical registers) is not required. A simple migration of single-mode core architecture to dual-mode architecture features the necessary user mode for core and memory protection.