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There are many steps in microelectronic device processing when the selective deposition of metals becomes a critical limiting issue.
English (United States)
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Selective Metal Deposition by a Resistless Liftoff Process
There are many steps in microelectronic device processing when the selective
deposition of metals becomes a critical limiting issue.
Selectivity is generally very difficult to achieve, always requiring special
approaches. For example, a laser can be used to initiate growth in a selected
area. Another method is to carefully control process variables so as to maximize
nucleation in one area (e.g., silicon oxide). Very often, blanket metal depositions
combined with lithography and liftoff steps are necessary to achieve the desired
metal pattern. A simple and inexpensive method to carry out selective metal
deposition is described herein. Many metals (Pd, Ni, Fe, V, Nb, Ta, Ti, Mn, Ag,
Lu, Er, and their alloys, among others) are known to undergo lattice expansion in
the presence of hydrogen due to the facile diffusion of hydrogen into the bulk
metal and the formation of a hydride phase. This lattice expansion is used to
selectively break weaker metalsubstrate interactions (like those to oxides and
other nonmetallic materials), while strong interactions such as metalmetal or
metalsemiconductor (e.g., formation of a metal silicide) remain intact and
unaffected. This technique, which is a very general one, is demonstrated by
selectively depositing metal onto a pattern of etched holes in silicon dioxide films
on silicon wafers. As an example, a thin palladium film (25 nm) is deposited by
evaporation onto a patterned SiO...