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Carbon ion extraction grids, used with controlled ion bombardment of the grids, sputter carbon onto the sample and introduce a controllable amount of carbon into an oxide layer.
English (United States)
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Carbon Grid ION Source
Carbon ion extraction grids, used with controlled ion bombardment of the
grids, sputter carbon onto the sample and introduce a controllable amount of
carbon into an oxide layer.
Fig. 1 shows a Kaufman ion source with two carbon grids (screen grid 1 and
accelerator grid 2), filament 3, anodes 4 and sample 5. This type has been used
for ion-beam oxidation of metals, such as Ni, Cr, and Nb.
In order to introduce sputtered material from the accelerator grid, the
accelerator grid voltage is made to be highly negative, causing ions from the
source to impinge on the grid. The degree of impingement, and hence the
amount of sputtered material deposited on the sample, is controlled by the
magnitude and duration of the negative voltage.
Figs. 2A and 2B illustrate voltage sequences for control of the process. To
introduce the desired material at the the process. To introduce the desired
material at the beginning of the oxidation process, a voltage sequence, as shown
in Fig. 2A, is used. During the period 6 of deposition of carbon (or other desired
material), the voltage on accelerator grid 5 (Fig. 1) is negative and there is high
impingement on the grid. Thereafter, during time period 7, the normal operating
voltage for oxidation is present, and there is very little impingement on the grid.
To introduce the material in the body of the oxide, a sequence shown in Fig.
2B is used, with carbon sputtering during time 6' sandwiched between time 7'
and time 7...