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This article relates generally to the fabrication of Josephson junctions and more particularly to the fabrication of Josephson junctions using a full-wafer process with a reduced number of masks.
English (United States)
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Improved Full Wafer Process
This article relates generally to the fabrication of Josephson junctions and
more particularly to the fabrication of Josephson junctions using a full-wafer
process with a reduced number of masks.
Fig. 1 shows the first step in the fabrication of Josephson junctions using a
full-wafer process. Fig. 1 does not show the silicon substrate on which the
various layers are formed, but its presence should be assumed. In Fig. 1, layers
M1, M2 and M3 are niobium or some other suitable superconductive metal well
known to those skilled in the Josephson art. The layers between M2 and M1 and
between M2 and M3 are oxides of niobium, for example. The oxide layer
between layers M2 and M3 is sufficiently thin to permit tunnelling between layers
M2 and M3.
Fig. 2 shows layers M2 and M3 and their intervening tunnel barrier after small
junctions have been defined by well-known photolithographic and etching
techniques. A photoresist layer (not shown) on layer M3 acts as a mask during
Fig. 3 shows the arrangement of Fig. 2 after it has been subjected to a
plasma oxidation step in the presence of a photoresist layer PR. Regions of
plasma-grown oxide approximately 500 Angstrom thick are formed on the
exposed edges of layers M2 and M3.
Fig. 4 shows a Josephson junction after a contact region to the M2 layer has
been defined, again using well-known photolithographic and etching techniques.
As a result of this, a portion of the M2 layer has been exposed....