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A system is described which utilizes the feedback of a characteristic Raman frequency to control the power and/or dwell of an annealing laser beam.
English (United States)
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Controlled Laser Annealing By Raman Frequency Feedback
A system is described which utilizes the feedback of a characteristic Raman
frequency to control the power and/or dwell of an annealing laser beam.
Feedback of the Raman frequency, which is a precise indicator of the extent
of crystallization, is useful for fine and automatic control of annealing in
semiconductor processing. In a perfect single crystal of silicon, the frequency of
the Raman-active zone-center optic phonon 520.4 per cm. As the material
becomes polycrystalline or amorphous, the Raman phonon frequency shifts to
lower values due to size effects associated with microcrystallites. This shift can
be as large as 10 per cm Laser annealing of semiconductors is normally
employed to recrystallize material which is originally polycrystalline or
amorphous. This shift in the Raman frequency can be utilized not only to monitor
the progress of the recrystallization, but it can also be fed back to servo-control
the annealing laser 10. Since the power in the annealing laser (approx. 5 watts)
is large enough to generate a strong Raman signal, no separate probe laser is
needed. The feedback signal can be generated by the apparatus shown in the
drawing. Suitable collection optics 14 are employed to direct the light scattered
from substrate 12 to apparatus 16 for monitoring the Raman line. For example,
apparatus 16 may comprise means to locate the peak of the Raman line and
take its difference from 520.4 per cm. Si...