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Ion implantation damage not removable by annealing is identified by Rs (sheet resistivity) measurements.
English (United States)
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Method of Identifying Ion Implantation Damage Not Removable by
Ion implantation damage not removable by annealing is identified by Rs
(sheet resistivity) measurements.
Lattice defects produced in a crystalline zone during doping by ion
implantation can be cured if the zone was made amorphous by the ions. The
transition from the crystalline to the amorphous state occurs at a critical dose and
a critical substrate temperature but depends also on other parameters, such as
crystal orientation, type and energy of ions and material to be bombarded.
During this transition, the Rs values of the zone increase considerably.
The above-described phenomena are dealt with in greater detail, using the
substrate temperature as an example. If arsenic is implanted at a dose of 2 x
10/16/ ions . cm/-2/ and an energy of 50 keV, the transition from the crystalline to
the amorphous state occurs at a substrate temperature of about 150 degrees C,
as shown in the figure. The figure also shows that the Rs values corresponding
to the different states change by a factor of 166 in the substrate temperature
range of 150 +/- 50 degrees C and that the Rs values > 100 k R/a correspond to
the amorphous state. During the production of integrated circuits, damage
caused by ion implantation cannot be tolerated, unless it is removable by
annealing. A prerequisite for this is the transition to the amorphous state. By
means of Rs measurements, the conditions needed to reach that state can be