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Theoretically all possible electrochromic print reactions used in aqueous systems for Molecular Matrix Printing (MMP) can be achieved with a maximum applied voltage of about 2 volts.
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High Efficiency MMP For Printing At Low Power Without Using Drivers
Theoretically all possible electrochromic print reactions used in aqueous
systems for Molecular Matrix Printing (MMP) can be achieved with a maximum
applied voltage of about 2 volts.
The graph above represents the current-voltage behavior in aqueous
systems. If the voltage applied between the electrodes is greater than 2 volts,
then electrolysis of water takes place with gaseous evolution (H(2)at the cathode
and 0(2) at the anode). So, the energy to drive the print reaction should be within
2 volts. It has been found that in a real electrochromic printing situation, when a
layer(s) of an electrolyte is applied to paper, most of the applied voltage is
dissipated to overcome the paper ohmic resistance. For example, we found that
if paper is treated with a layer of sensitizing fluid, the voltage necessary to drive
the print head so as to produce good printed dots depends on the actual fluid
resistivity Omega, the distance between the electrodes d, and the thickness of
the fluid layer S. The resistance of the system R is given by R = k.(Omega)(s)d.
Thus, the resistance of the printing system increases with increasing
separation between the print pins and counterelectrode (d) and with decreasing
thickness of the fluid applied (S). For most common cases d is 4 mils and S
about 1 mil, and with the electrolytes generally used, R is usually of the order of
5000 ohms. In such cases, to obtain good optical...