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Precipitation of calcium within lines used in aqueous water monitoring instrumentation is eliminated by using an acid addition procedure.
English (United States)
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Elimination of Calcium Precipitation in Efficient Monitoring Equipment
Precipitation of calcium within lines used in aqueous water monitoring
instrumentation is eliminated by using an acid addition procedure.
In two waste treatment monitoring applications the sample in one stream is a
saturated lime solution and the sample in the other stream contains calcium in a
variety of different compounds which are introduced at various times and
concentrations. In both applications a combined total of eight continuous
analytical monitoring instruments are used to measure concentrations of species,
such as fluoride, copper, hexavalent chromium and ammonia. In spite of a 0.22-
micron filter which provides a clean sample to the instruments, calcium
precipitates in all tubing and plumbing lines that are associated within the
instrument fluidic structure. Not until the sample stream is mixed with the
reagents does the problem cease to exist. Any lines where precipitation occurs
eventually clog, resulting in sample loss and erroneous instrument data. This is
unacceptable since much of the monitoring equipment is provided with alarms
and is capable of automatic corrective action.
Fig. 1 shows the normal pump filter arrangement provided on one such
analyzer to provide a clean sample to the instrument. The cross-hatched areas
are fluidic lines normally subject to clogging by calcium precipitation. Fig. 2
details the modifications made to eliminate the problem. A second pumphead is