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This generator generates a reference voltage which is automatically set to a favorable minimum value and applied to the base of multicollector transistors used as load elements in digital circuits.
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Reference Voltage Generator
This generator generates a reference voltage which is automatically set to a
favorable minimum value and applied to the base of multicollector transistors
used as load elements in digital circuits.
PNP transistors T21 to T2n are used as load elements for the current supply
of inverting NPN transistors T11 to T1n which may form part of a merged
transistor logic (MTL/I/2/L) or a Schottky transistor logic (STL), for example. A
total current I is supplied in parallel to transistors T21 to T2n which have a
common base potential, reference voltage V(ref), so that the currents I0 are
distributed to transistors T11 to T1n via the separate collectors of the former
Reference voltage V(ref) is generated by means of a circuit comprising a
PNP transistor T20, an NPN transistor T3 and a Schottky diode D.
For keeping transistors T21 to T2n unsaturated, thus preventing an effective
reduction of the current amplification of NPN transistors T11 to T1n and
additional charge storage, reference voltage V(ref) at the base of the former
transistors should be of adequate magnitude (higher than +100 mV). However,
reference voltage V(ref) must not be unduly high, as this would increase the
current tolerances and necessitate a higher operating voltage V (increased
power requirements) to obtain relatively favorable tolerances.
The generator is designed in such a manner that PNP transistor T20, having
the same favorable tracking characteristics as parallel PNP transistors T21 to
T2n, is connected in parallel to the latter. Transistor T20 is connected to NPN
transistor T3 in accordance with the equivalent circuit diagram of an SCR; i.e., it
can be merged with T20 in a monolithic layout. A high...