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To prevent charge effects from occurring during ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on X-radiated samples, the latter are boiled in DI (deionized) water prior to analysis.
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Method of Preventing Charge Effects During ESCA Analysis
To prevent charge effects from occurring during ESCA (Electron
Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on X-radiated samples, the latter are boiled
in DI (deionized) water prior to analysis.
When SiO(2) layers on Si wafers are X-radiated during ESCA analysis,
positive charges build up on the samples, shifting the kinetic energies of the
photoelectrons. To avoid such charge effects, the samples are boiled for 5 to 10
minutes in DI water prior to the actual analysis. The table below, listing the typical
energies of several elements of treated and untreated samples, shows that
samples thus treated are free from charge effects. The deviation of the treated
samples from the desired data is inside the normal error range.
During treatment with DI water, the uppermost monolayer of the sample is
changed, as could be proved by Electron Induced Ion Desorption (EID). As
during ESCA analysis, the information on the uppermost monolayer enters the
information from the region close to the surface (down to a depth of about 5 nm),
the samples can be treated with DI water, without the ESCA spectra being
Compared with previously used electron flood guns, which are difficult to
handle, the above-described method constitutes a simple means for eliminating
charge effects on samples during ESCA analysis.