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This article describes a level shifting amplifier in which the values of resistors are chosen to provide constant amplifier gain, that is, gain unaffected by the operating point.
English (United States)
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Level Shifting Amplifier With Constant Gain
This article describes a level shifting amplifier in which the values of resistors
are chosen to provide constant amplifier gain, that is, gain unaffected by the
The general function of a level shifting amplifier is to convert a floating input
voltage (not referenced to ground) to voltages which are referenced to ground.
The drawing illustrates a level shifting amplifier. The output voltage V0 produced
by this amplifier is determined by the equation: The equation shows that the
output voltage V0 is a function of the absolute values of V1 and V2. As V1 and
V2 change, V0 also changes even if the input voltage E remains constant. That
is, the gain of the circuit is generally a function of the operating point.
For selected values of resistors, however, the illustrated circuit can operate at
a gain G independent of the absolute magnitudes of the input voltages V1 and
V2, provided the resistors have the values indicated below, where A and B are
fixed ohmic levels: If the values given above are substituted into equation (1), it
will be seen that the gain G (V0/E) is independent of the absolute magnitudes of
V1 and V2.
By choosing the relative values of A and B appropriately, the voltages V+ and
V- at the inputs to the operational amplifier can be limited to values compatible
with the operational amplifier's specifications. The values V+ and V- should equal
one another, both being a function of V2 as indicated...