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Elongate integrated optical components may be conveniently fabricated by forming a suitable pattern on a substrate and then stretching the pattern and substrate to a final desired geometry.
English (United States)
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Optical Components by Fiber Pulling
Elongate integrated optical components may be conveniently fabricated by
forming a suitable pattern on a substrate and then stretching the pattern and
substrate to a final desired geometry.
Many single-mode optical components have extremely large aspect ratios. A
3 dB coupler, for example, consists of two coupled optical waveguides, a few mm
long, separated by a distance of ~ 2 mu m, which must be controlled to typically
one percent. Such stringent requirements are difficult to meet by any but the
most sophisticated photolithographic equipment.
I propose to use the anisotropic dimension-changing properties of the glass-
fiber pulling process to form such structures. Typically, an optical fiber is formed
by pulling a heated preform of mm or cm dimensions to a finished size of ~ 100
mu m. As all lateral dimensions are reduced by the factor m, the longitudinal
dimension of the structure is increased by m/2/. This anisotropy is ideal for the
final structures described.
The preform in this case is not a round glass rod, but rather a flat substrate
which is patterned by lithography. The pattern is suitably predistorted to allow for
the lateral contraction of the pattern and the longitudinal extension. The drawing
shows one example. This is a preform for a series of many 3 dB couplers,
hundreds of which may be pulled in a single operation. This is in contrast to
direct lithography, where the large length of the finished devices preclu...