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This spectrometer simplifies measurement of contact charge by providing a smooth variation of work function with the high charge sensitivity of a split cage Faraday cup in a static cryovacuum system.
English (United States)
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Continuous Range Contact Charge Exchange Spectrometer
This spectrometer simplifies measurement of contact charge by providing a
smooth variation of work function with the high charge sensitivity of a split cage
Faraday cup in a static cryovacuum system.
Contact charge exchange has recently been shown by C. Duke et al. [l] and F. R. Ruckdeschel  to be a promising technique for measuring the surface and
bulk density of both acceptor and donor states as a function of energy in a
polymer. It also gives information on the depth of charge penetration into the
polymer through thickness studies. The technique involves coating a substrate
metal with the polymer to be studied and contacting repeatedly the free polymer
surface with another metal. When the work function of the polymer and the metal
are not equal, charge will be exchanged until a metastable equilibrium is
obtained, which will show up, as a voltage on the insulating polymer. The solution
of Poisson's equation for a uniform density of bulk states is delta V=(rho/2 eps)
where b is the polymer thickness, rho is the state density;, and epsilon is the
dielectric constant. The charge injection is due mainly to tunneling of charge
carriers, is very energy selective, and is peaked about the Fermi energy level of
the metal. Hence, by scanning through the work functions of a series of metals,
either oxide covered or bare, the concentrations of bulk acceptor and donor
states can be measured. The method is cumbersome i...