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With currently available bidirectional typewriters, the operator is required to estimate the space required for left-to-right text inserted in a normal right-to-left printed line, as illustrated at 10.
English (United States)
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Modified "Mixed Text" Function for an Electronic Typewriter
With currently available bidirectional typewriters, the operator is required to
estimate the space required for left-to-right text inserted in a normal right-to-left
printed line, as illustrated at 10.
In an electronic typewriter which is bilingual and bidirectional, as for the
Arabic and Hebrew languages, the languages are printed from right-to-left on the
typing line, but left-to-right Latin text is sometimes keyboarded and printed on the
same line. This is called "mixed text" in this article.
In order to insert the left-to-right text using presently available typewriters, the
operator must space to the left an estimated distance corresponding to the Latin
text to be printed, change the mode to left-to-right printing, keyboard the Latin
text, change the mode to right-to-left printing, and then space left over the Latin
text in order to resume keyboarding right-to-left. For standard spacing printers,
the distance spaced can be accurately determined by counting characters.
However, with a proportional spacing printer, the distance can only be
approximated. Thus, crowded or widely spaced printing sometimes occurs.
The modified "mixed text" electronic function disclosed provides accurate
formatting and also automatically positions the printer carrier at each step of the
The function will be described in terms of operator actions,
electronic logic operations, and printer actions. The assumption is
made that the function is implemented on an electronic typewriter,
such as the IBM Model 60, in which the keyboard inputs enter
electronic logic and memory which, in turn, control the printer.
Either microprocessor software or an electronic logic implementation
of the function is possible.
* The coded "X" could be any unused coded character.
The "mixed text" function operates correctly either in the left to right or right-
to-left primary printing mode" The above description as...