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Josephson tunnel barrier oxides can be fabricated using a process which includes an RF oxygen plasma exited at 13.5 MHz, 360 Vp-p, and 10-20 mTorr 0(2).
English (United States)
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Method for Fabricating Uniform Josephson Barrier Oxides by Cathode
Rotation in an RF Plasma
Josephson tunnel barrier oxides can be fabricated using a process which
includes an RF oxygen plasma exited at 13.5 MHz, 360 Vp-p, and 10-20 mTorr
Typically, as shown in Fig. 1A, one-inch wafers are attached to a fixed
cathode with equally spaced positions around a circle of 2 1/2-inch radius. The
measured junction tunneling currents versus the position on the cathode where
the wafers are subjected to the plasma is shown in Fig. 1B for omega = 0.0. The
current densities at 2 1/2-inch radius are nearly a factor of two higher than at the
The dominant cause of this is the non-uniform plasma ion distribution striking
the cathode surface, as shown in Fig. 2. This profile leads to non-uniform
sputtering, oxidation and backscattering. Thus, the Josephson current densities
obtained on wafers at the cathode center are lower where there is more oxygen
available to grow a thicker oxide.
The rotating cathode solution to this problem is shown in Fig. 3. With the
angular velocity of the rotating element set at omega = 0.82 RPM, the wafers
sample all possible cathode radial positions between r = 0.0 and r = 3.4 inches
on an 8-inch diameter cathode. The rate of change of the junction position on the
cathode is short compared to the rate of change of oxide thickness. The net
oxide growth rate is believed to be related to the difference between the oxidation
rate, which falls off exponentially with oxide thickness...