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Ruthenium oxides are used as a seed catalyst for initiating electroless metal deposition.
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Ruthenium Oxide Seeding of Electroless Copper Deposition
Ruthenium oxides are used as a seed catalyst for initiating electroless metal
The compounds are useful catalysts for formaldehyde oxidation and for
initiating electroless copper deposition in baths containing HCHO as a reducing
The catalyst may be formed (1) by mixing ruthenium trichloride hydrate with a
small volume of isopropanol to form a thin paste, (2) by applying ruthenium
dioxide as a coating on a substrate, (3) by decomposing RuCl3 at 400OE C for 4
hours to form RuO2 powder which is then dispersed in methanol using ultrasonic
agitation, or (4) by using a cation exchange polymer to bind ruthenium ions to a
substrate surface which ions are subsequently hydrolyzed to a ruthenium oxide
catalyst. In the last example, nafion (a perfluorocarbon sulfonic acid based
system) and polyacrylic acid Na-salt are preferred polymers.
Ruthenium oxide exhibits higher stability and increased resistance to
dissolution in the early stages of Cu deposition, before the catalyst becomes
covered with a protective layer of copper, than conventional Pd/Sn catalysts.