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Reflectance measurements are used to determine the surface concentration of dopants in semiconductor materials.
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Determining The Surface Concentration Of Dopants In Semiconductors
Reflectance measurements are used to determine the surface concentration
of dopants in semiconductor materials.
The semiconductor wafers are irradiated with infrared light, and the
wavelength at which the reflectance is 0.46 is determined. The surface
concentration is derived from the wavelength by means of a calibration curve
obtained by chemical analysis or electrical measuring methods. This procedure
is applied to wafers doped from one side. For wafers doped from both sides, a
constant shift of 50 Kayser is obtained, so that for these wafers another
calibration curve has to be used.