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Integrated circuit 10 provides a constant voltage Vab which is insensitive to variations in temperature and fluctuations in power supply voltage E1.
English (United States)
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Constant Voltage Reference Source
Integrated circuit 10 provides a constant voltage Vab which is insensitive to
variations in temperature and fluctuations in power supply voltage E1.
Circuit 10, which is to the left of nodes A and B, is equivalent to a very low
temperature coefficient (TC) zener diode in series with a very low TC current
source, the equivalent components 1, 2 being shown in dash-line form for the
sake of clarity. This results in a floating reference voltage Vab with a negligible
nominal TC. Circuit 10 is used with an appropriate output stage 11, e.g.,
operational amplifier 12 and two discrete resistors R5, R6, to provide a very
accurate temperature compensated output reference voltage Vref. Alternatively,
stage 11 may be completely comprised of IC components except for resistors R5
and R6 which may be paste resistors on the chip's ceramic substrate. Resistor
R6 may be machine-trimmed to the desired value.
Components R1, R2, D1, Z1, Q1-Q5 form the temperature-compensated
current source 2 for the composite zener 1, which consists of R3, R4, Q6 and Z2.
During operation, resistors R3 and R4 attenuate the positive TC magnitude of Z2
to a value which matches the negative TC magnitude of Q6. Since the TC
magnitude of Q6 varies with its emitter current, the emitter current is also kept
constant with temperature via a positive resistance variation of R2 with
temperature. For example, in a certain type of IC chip, R2 can vary by
approximately 10% and almos...