Trans Fat Free Non-Dairy Whipped Toppings and Icings Utilizing Unhydrogenated or Fully Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils
Publication Date: 2005-Aug-26
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Formulation of non-dairy whipped toppings and icings using unhydrogenated oils which result in nearly zero or a trace amount of trans fat in the finished product
The use of unhydrogenated vegetable oils to produce trans fat free non-dairy frozen whipped toppings and icings.
The formation of trans fats is a result of the partial hydrogenation of fats or oils. Fats undergo hydrogenation to impart desirable manufacturing or handling properties in a wide variety of food applications to include baking, candy making, aeration of whipped toppings and icings or simply to extend the shelf life of the fat. It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe in detail the mechanisms involved in the formation of and the effects of trans fat in the diet but suffice it to say that the partial hydrogenation of oils produces a special or unique orientation in the fatty acid chain. This “trans” orientation is essentially not present in unhydrogenated or fully hydrogenated fatty acid chains.
The scientific community has conclusively shown that the consumption of trans fat (as well as saturated fat and dietary cholesterol) raises the level of low density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) in the bloodstream which subsequently increases the risk of coronary heart disease and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been estimated that coronary heart disease is either directly or indirectly responsible for the death of approximately one half million Americans annually.
Based on the gravity of this health threat and the desire to allow consumers to monitor their intake of trans fat the Food and Drug Administration will soon require food manufacturers to reveal or list the trans fat content of their products. As of January 1, 2006 the amount of trans fats per serving will appear on all Nutrition Facts panels. The saturated fat and dietary cholesterol level have been included in the Nutrition Fact panel since the inception of the NLEA of 1990.
This paper describes the formulation of non-dairy whipped toppings and icings using unhydrogenated oils which result in nearly zero or a trace amount of trans fat in the finished products.
Non-dairy whipped toppings and icings are extremely popular for bakery or dessert food items and are for the most part preferred over the dairy counterpart because of the superiority of vegetable oil based products in important performance functions such as freeze/thaw stability, appearance and yield upon whipping and resistance to the rigors of shipping and improper handling.
Arguably the most crucial ingredient in the formulation of the non-dairy product is the oil component. The oil or fat of choice has typically been partially hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) or combinations of PKO and partially hydrogenated Coconut Oil. Various manufacturers have successfully employed the use of customized blends of oil containing special “fractions” of vegetable oils to enhance stabi...