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Advanced Design of LNG Import Terminals

IP.com Disclosure Number: IPCOM000182760D
Publication Date: 2009-May-05

Publishing Venue

The IP.com Prior Art Database

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Charles Durr

David Coyle

Himanshu Patel

Joseph H. Cho

Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.

Houston, Texas 77002

Prepared for Presentation at the AIChE 2003 Spring National Meeting 3rd Topical Conference on Natural Gas Utilization

Copyright Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.

April 1, 2003


AIChE shall not be responsible for statements or opinions contained in papers or printed in its publications.

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There has been a recent renewal of interest in North American LNG import terminals, as the worldwide gas market is continuing to grow. This paper reviews conventional LNG import terminal designs, including the process and major factors impacting the terminal cost. Recently, companies have approached KBR regarding future possibilities, specifically floating re- gasification units, and integrating LNG import terminals with electric power generation plants. These developments will lead to fit-for-purpose, low cost LNG import terminals for the ultimate benefit of consumers.


AIChE 2003 Spring Meeting 3rd Topical Conference on Natural Gas Utilization

age 2 of 17

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LNG trade volume has been steadily increasing by about 9% per year for the last two decades. This trend is expected to continue as general energy demand rises and natural gas is becoming power plant fuel. An LNG receiving terminal is a key component of an LNG chain. The role of a terminal is to receive, store, vaporize, and send-out the re-gasified natural gas to customers with high reliability. A total of 42 LNG receiving terminals, excluding LNG peak shaving facilities, are currently operating.

Technology advances have been brought in different areas of an LNG chain, resulting in LNG production and transportation cost dramatically reduced. The plant reliability and safety in handling LNG have also increased. These efforts make LNG have a high competitiveness against other energy sources: coal energy and nuclear power. The paradigm of the role of LNG receiving terminal has been changing with the new innovative technologies in designing LNG receiving terminals, which must be designed on a fit-for-purpose basis to meet the unique situation at each project condition.

This paper reviews the LNG receiving terminal process and main equipment currently in common practice by KBR, who has designed over 65% of the LNG receiving terminal projects outside of Japan between 1987 and 2002. This paper also presents new innovative conceptual designs, which bring high operational reliability and economical benefits. These involve floating re-gasification units and thermal integration with a power plant.


The LNG receiving terminal (RT) receives liquefied natural gas from LNG carriers, stores the LNG in storage tanks, vaporizes the LNG, and then delive...