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LNG Terminals-Recent Developments Disclosure Number: IPCOM000182801D
Publication Date: 2009-May-05

Publishing Venue

The Prior Art Database

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Janusz Tarlowski

John Sheffield

M. W. Kellogg Ltd

United Kingdom

Charles Durr

David Coyle

Himanshu Patel
Houston, Texas


There has been a recent renewal of interest in LNG import terminals, as the worldwide gas market continues to grow to supply domestic/industrial users and in many cases new power generation projects. LNG imports are planned in North America and in Spain and Italy as well as other locations. This paper reviews LNG import terminal designs as well as the major factors impacting the terminal cost. It looks at the integration of LNG import terminals with electric power generation plants being considered for new projects and the potential benefits. Some new developments are overviewed to show how some projects can be implemented in spite of initial local opposition. The overall goal being a fit-for-purpose, low cost LNG import terminal which maximises revenue from gas and power sales.

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pub1114a.pdf 2002 19 pgs total

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I. Introduction

The worldwide liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade has increased steadily (over 5 % per year) since the industry began. It stands at 120 MTPA in 2002 and is expected to rise to 160 MTPA in 2005/6. This trend is expected to continue as natural gas becomes the fuel of choice for electric power providers and as developing countries increase their energy demands.

The receiving terminal is one component of the LNG chain between the gas field and the residential or industrial consumer. This paper reviews the LNG receiving terminal process and equipment currently in common use in a number of Kellogg designed facilities as well as describing some newer features being considered.

Integration with power plants is currently under consideration for a number of projects and some of the issues will be described in this paper

II. The Process

A simplified process flow diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Receiving Terminal Flow Diagram

Boil-Off Gas


1st Stage


Pumps Recondenser

2nd Stage

Sendout Pumps

Figure 1 - LNG Receiving Terminal Simplified Process Flow Diagram

The LNG receiving terminal receives liquefied natural gas from special ships, stores the liquid in special storage tanks, vaporises the LNG, and then delivers the natural gas into a distribution pipeline. The receiving terminal is designed to deliver a specified gas rate into a distribution pipeline and to maintain a reserve capacity of LNG. The amount of reserve

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Vapour Return Line

LNG Unloading Lines

LNG Storage Tanks

Fuel Gas

Vaporiser To


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capacity depends on expected shipping delays, seasonal variations of supply and consumption, and str...