Status of Kellogg's Fluid Bed and Transport Gasification Processes
Publication Date: 2012-May-04
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STATUS OF KELLOGG'S FLUID BED
AND TRANSPORT GASIFICATION PROCESSES
The M.W. Kellogg Company is developing and commercializing several processes to produce fuel gas, synthesis gas, and power from coal.. The development of these technologies has been supported by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and other commercial interests. This paper traces the development and testing of Kellogg's KRW and Transport gasification technologies.
The KRW process is a spouting bed gasifier operating at relatively mild conditions. The process uses either air or oxygen as oxidant. Air is the preferred oxidant for gas-turbine-based power production and oxygen for synthesis gas production. Kellogg is currently designing the gasifier island for a 100 MWe IGCC power plant for Sierra Pacific Power Company in Reno Nevada. The design processes 880 TPD of bituminous coal in an air-blown KRW gasifier with in-bedlimestone desulfurization. The fuel gas is cleaned in a Transport hot gas desulfurizationsystem and a ceramic candle particulatefilter before combustion in an advanced GE gas turbine. The plant, which is expectedto start up in late 1996, has an overall cycle efficiency of 40.6% (HHV).
The Transport gasifier processes pulverized coal at significantly higher velocities than in fluid bed reactors. This technology, while not yet as fully tested as the KRW process, is expected to significantly reduce the capital cost of the coal conversion process. In 1993 a 2.4 TPD Transport pilot plant was built at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental ResearchCenter and was successfullytested on gasifiction and combustion of Wyodak coal. A 38 ton per day Transport gasifier/combustor is part of the Wilsonville Power Systems Development Facility. Construction is well underway and the unit is expected to start-up in late 1995. Studies by the USDOE project that within ten years electric power could be produced from coal at cycle efficiencies greater than 50% using the Transport technology.
BACKGROUND OF THE KRW GASIFICATION PROCESS
KRW Energy Systems Inc., under a number of contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy, its precursor agencies, and the Gas Research Institute(GRI), engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process for converting manyvarieties and ranks of coal to clean, environmentally-acceptablefuel gas. From 1972 to 1984 the programwas conducted by Westinghouse Electric Corporation at its Waltz Mill, Pennsylvania,facility. In 1984, ownership of the technology and managementof the programwas taken over by The M.W.Kellogg Company. Operation of this Process Development Unit (PDU)
was continued until the facility was de-commissioned in 1988. The cost of the development program over that period of time was approximately $150,000,000.
The testing demonstrated that caking coals, highly reactive coals, and coals with wide ran...