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Inherently Safer Design Review of a New Alkylation Process Disclosure Number: IPCOM000217381D
Publication Date: 2012-May-07
Document File: 7 page(s) / 668K

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P. M.Geren, Haldor Topsoe, Inc.

A. J. McCarthy and J. M. Ditz, The M.W. Kellogg Co.

As everyone in this audience is probably aware, our industry is among the safer of industriesfor which data are available. Table 1 shows the OSHA incidence rate and the "Fatal Accident Rate" (FAR) for various industries.The FAR is basedon the equivalent of 1000workers, working2000 hours per year for 50 years (100millionhours "exposed").The FAR data indicate that (for our industry) if a thousandworkers beginemploymentwith a50- year employment horizon, four of these employees will die as a result of their employment. However, of these same employees, 20 will die as a result of non- industrial accidents (mostly at home or on the road), and 370 will die from disease. Table 2 shows fatality statistics for common nonindustrial activities. Though the FAR for staying at home is marginally lower than for going to work inour industry, you are probably less likely to die at work; you spend at least twice as much time at home which indicates a 50% higher probability of accidental death there than at work. Assuming this conference hall is the equivalent of "at home", you are marginallysafer herethan at work (unlessyou spent a significantly longer time driving here). EPA has suggested that we seek alternative means for getting to work, such as bicycling. Assuming you can "pedal" at one quarter of your driving speed, you will be seven times more likely to die on your way to work by this means. Perhaps this is the Government'sway of coping with the Medicarecrisis!

However, we at Kelloggare not complacent in spite of these statistics. Inaddition to our major focus on plant and operations safety, we also emphasizesafety inour homeoffice operations and the safety and health of our employees, both at work and elsewhere. Many of our other safety initiatives will be addressed by others in this conference. This paper addresses a specific plant design technique which has the potentialto make the plants we design safer: safer to fabricate, safer to construct, safer to start-up, run, and shut-down, and safer to maintain.

ConventionalSafety Principles

Ina safety context, risk is afunction of boththe probabilttyof occurrence of an incidentand the consequences of that incident should it occur. Theoretically, we can make plants safer by addressing either of the risk components. We address both. We already reduce the probabilityof occurrence of an incident in many ways:

conformingto nationally accepted codes and standards as they are developed or modified (and helping to develop and modify them),
adhering to our own Kellogg or clients' standards and specifications which require us to go a little further during design, fabrication and erection, holding several intensive design reviews during engineering,
incorporatinginputfrom constructionand plant services up-front during engineering design,
formingqualrty allianceswith ou...